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销售:管理有利润的客户关系10

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New-Product Development and Product Life-Cycle Strategies Cha pte r 10 Objectives • Unde rs ta nd how compa nie s find a nd de ve lop ne w­product ide a s . • Le a rn the s te ps in the ne w­product de ve lopme nt proce s s . • Know the s ta ge s of the product life cycle . • Unde rs ta nd how **** rke ting s tra te gie s cha nge during the product’s life cycle . Case Study Mic ros oft • $50 billion in • Innovation is critical profits over 27 to Microsoft’s future years s uc c es s • Early new-product • Much of R & D development efforts are Internet relied heavily on related copying the • Many new products c ompetition and services are in • $4.2 billion development Definition • Ne w P roduct De ve lopme nt  De ve lopme nt of origina l products , product improve me nts , product modifica tions , a nd ne w bra nds through the firm’s own R & D e fforts . New Product Development Strategy • Ne w products ca n be obta ine d via a cquis ition or de ve lopme nt. • Ne w products s uffe r from high fa ilure ra te s . • S e ve ra l re a s ons a ccount for fa ilure . New Product Development Strategy • Ne w P roduct De ve lopme nt P roce s s :  S ta ge 1: Ide a Ge ne ra tion  Inte rnal ide a s o urc e s : –R &D  Ex te rnal ide a s o urc e s : – Cus tome rs , compe titors , dis tributors , s upplie rs New Product Development Strategy • Ne w P roduct De ve lopme nt P roce s s :  S ta ge 2: Ide a S cre e ning  Pro duc t de v e lo p m e nt c o s ts inc re as e s ub s tantially in late r s tag e s .  Ide as are e v aluate d ag ains t c rite ria; m o s t are e lim inate d. New Product Development Strategy • Ne w P roduct De ve lopme nt P roce s s :  S ta ge 3: Conce pt De ve lopme nt a nd Te s ting  Pro duc t c o nc e p ts p ro v ide de taile d v e rs io ns o f ne w p ro duc t ide as .  C o nc e p t te s ts as k targ e t c o ns um e rs to e v aluate p ro duc t c o nc e p ts . New Product Development Strategy • Ne w P roduct De ve lopme nt P roce s s :  S ta ge 4: Ma rke ting S tra te gy De ve lopme nt  Strate g y s tate m e nts de s c rib e : – The ta rge t **** rke t, product pos itioning, a nd s a le s , s ha re , a nd profit goa ls for the firs t fe w ye a rs . – P roduct price , dis tribution, a nd **** rke ting budge t for the firs t ye a r. – Long­run s a le s a nd profit goa ls a nd the **** rke ting mix s tra te gy. New Product Development Strategy • Ne w P roduct De ve lopme nt P roce s s :  S ta ge 5: Bus ine s s Ana lys is  Sale s , c o s t, and p ro fit p ro je c tio ns  S ta ge 6: P roduct De ve lopme nt  Pro to typ e de v e lo p m e nt and te s ting New Product Development Strategy • Ne w P roduct De ve lopme nt P roce s s :  S ta ge 7: Te s t Ma rke ting  Standard te s t m arke ts  C o ntro lle d te s t m arke ts  Sim ulate d te s t m arke ts  S ta ge 8: Comme rcia liza tion Product Life-Cycle Strategies • The Typica l P roduct Life Cycle (P LC) Ha s Five S ta ge s  P roduct De ve lopme nt, Introduction, Growth, Ma turity, De cline  Not a ll products follow this cycle :  Fads  Style s  Fas hio ns Product Life-Cycle Strategies • The product life cycle conce pt ca n be a pplie d to a :  P roduct cla s s (s oft drinks )  P roduct form (**** t cola s )  Bra nd (Die t Dr. P e ppe r)  Us ing the PLC to fo re c as t b rand p e rfo rm anc e o r to de v e lo p m arke ting s trate g ie s is p ro b le m atic Product Life-Cycle Strategies PLC Stages • Be gins whe n the compa ny de ve lops • Pro duc t a ne w­product ide a de v e lo p m e nt • S a le s a re ze ro • Intro duc tio n • Inve s tme nt cos ts • Gro w th • Maturity a re high • De c line • P rofits a re ne ga tive Product Life-Cycle Strategies PLC Stages • Low s a le s • High cos t pe r • Pro duc t de v e lo p m e nt cus tome r a cquire d • Ne ga tive profits • Intro duc tio n • Innova tors a re • Gro w th • Maturity ta rge te d • De c line • Little compe tition Marketing Strategies: Introduction Stage • Pro duc t – Offe r a ba s ic product • Pric e – Us e cos t­plus ba s is to s e t • Dis trib utio n – Build s e le ctive dis tribution • Adv e rtis ing – Build a wa re ne s s a mong e a rly a dopte rs a nd de a le rs /re s e lle rs • Sale s Pro m o tio n – He a vy e xpe nditure s to cre a te tria l Product Life-Cycle Strategies PLC Stages • Ra pidly ris ing s a le s • Ave ra ge cos t pe r • Pro duc t de v e lo p m e nt cus tome r • Ris ing profits • Intro duc tio n • Ea rly a dopte rs a re • Gro w th • Maturity ta rge te d • De c line • Growing compe tition Marketing Strategies: Growth Stage • Pro duc t – Offe r product e xte ns ions , s e rvice , wa rra nty • Pric e – P e ne tra tion pricing • Dis trib utio n – Build inte ns ive dis tribution • Adv e rtis ing – Build a wa re ne s s a nd inte re s t in the **** s s **** rke t • Sale s Pro m o tio n – Re duce e xpe nditure s to ta ke a dva nta ge of cons ume r de **** nd Product Life-Cycle Strategies PLC Stages • S a le s pe a k • Low cos t pe r • Pro duc t de v e lo p m e nt cus tome r • High profits • Intro duc tio n • Middle **** jority a re • Gro w th • Maturity ta rge te d • De c line • Compe tition be gins to de cline Marketing Strategies: Maturity Stage • Pro duc t – Dive rs ify bra nd a nd mode ls • Pric e – S e t to **** tch or be a t compe tition • Dis trib utio n – Build more inte ns ive dis tribution • Adv e rtis ing – S tre s s bra nd diffe re nce s a nd be ne fits • Sale s Pro m o tio n – Incre a s e to e ncoura ge bra nd s witching Product Life-Cycle Strategies PLC Stages • De clining s a le s • Low cos t pe r • Pro duc t de v e lo p m e nt cus tome r • De clining profits • Intro duc tio n • La gga rds a re • Gro w th • Maturity ta rge te d • De c line • De clining compe tition Marketing Strategies: Decline Stage • Pro duc t – P ha s e out we a k ite ms • Pric e – Cut price • Dis trib utio n – Us e s e le ctive dis tribution: pha s e out unprofita ble outle ts • Adv e rtis ing – Re duce to le ve l ne e de d to re ta in ha rd­core loya lis ts • Sale s Pro m o tio n – Re duce to mini**** l le ve l
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