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销售:管理有利润的客户关系9

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Product, Services, and Branding Strategies Cha pte r 9 Objectives • Be a ble to de fine p ro duc t a nd know the **** jor cla s s ifica tions of products a nd s e rvice s . • Unde rs ta nd the de cis ions compa nie s **** ke re ga rding the ir individua l products a nd s e rvice s , product line s , a nd product mixe s . Objectives • Unde rs ta nd how firms build a nd **** na ge the ir bra nds . • Know the four cha ra cte ris tics of s e rvice s a nd the a dditiona l **** rke ting cons ide ra tions tha t s e rvice s re quire . • Re vie w a dditiona l product is s ue s re la te d to s ocia l re s pons ibility a nd inte rna tiona l **** rke ting. Case Study The Cosmetics Industry • Cosmetics • The “promise”, companies sell i****ge, company, billions of name, package, dollars worth of and ingre****nts produc ts are all part of the • Consumers buy product, as are the more than just a stores where it is particular smell s old. Definitions • P roduct  Anything offe re d to a **** rke t for a tte ntion, a cquis ition, us e , or cons umption tha t might s a tis fy a ne e d or wa nt. • S e rvice  Any a ctivity or be ne fit tha t one pa rty ca n offe r to a nothe r tha t is e s s e ntia lly inta ngible a nd doe s not re s ult in owne rs hip of a nything. What is a Product? • P roducts , S e rvice s , a nd Expe rie nce s  Ma rke t offe rings , pure ta ngible goods , pure s e rvice s , e xpe rie nce s • Le ve ls of P roduct a nd S e rvice s  Core be ne fit, a ctua l product, a nd a ugme nte d product • P roduct a nd S e rvice Cla s s ifica tions What is a Product? Types of • Fre que nt purcha s e s Cons umer bought with mini**** l Produc ts buying e ffort a nd little • C o nv e nie nc e compa ris on s hopping • Sho p p ing • Low price • Sp e c ialty • Wide s pre a d • Uns o ug ht dis tribution • Ma s s promotion by produce r What is a Product? Types of • Le s s fre que nt purcha s e s Cons umer re quiring more s hopping Produc ts e ffort a nd price , qua lity, • C o nv e nie nc e a nd s tyle compa ris ons . • Sho p p ing • Highe r tha n conve nie nce • Sp e c ialty good pricing • Uns o ug ht • S e le ctive dis tribution in fe we r outle ts • Adve rtis ing a nd pe rs ona l s e lling by produce r a nd re s e lle r What is a Product? Types of • S trong bra nd pre fe re nce Cons umer a nd loya lty, re quire s Produc ts s pe cia l purcha s e e ffort, • C o nv e nie nc e little bra nd compa ris ons , a nd low price s e ns itivity • Sho p p ing • Sp e c ialty • High price • Exclus ive dis tribution • Uns o ug ht • Ca re fully ta rge te d promotion by produce rs a nd re s e lle rs What is a Product? Types of • Little product a wa re ne s s Cons umer a nd knowle dge (or if Produc ts a wa re , s ome time s • C o nv e nie nc e ne ga tive inte re s t) • Sho p p ing • P ricing va rie s • Sp e c ialty • Dis tribution va rie s • Aggre s s ive a dve rtis ing • Uns o ug ht a nd pe rs ona l s e lling by produce rs a nd re s e lle rs What is a Product? • P roduct a nd S e rvice Cla s s ifica tions  Cons ume r products  Indus tria l products  Mate rials and p arts  C ap ital ite m s  Sup p lie s and s e rv ic e s What is a Product? • P roduct a nd S e rvice Cla s s ifica tions  Orga niza tions , pe rs ons , pla ce s , a nd ide a s  O rg aniz atio nal m arke ting m ake s us e o f c o rp o rate im ag e adv e rtis ing  Pe rs o n m arke ting ap p lie s to p o litic al c andidate s , e nte rtainm e nt s p o rts fig ure s , and p ro fe s s io nals  Plac e m arke ting re late s to to uris m  So c ial m arke ting c am p aig ns p ro m o te ide as Product and Service Decisions Key Decisions • P roduct a ttribute s • Indiv idual Pro duc t  Qua lity, fe a ture s , s tyle • Pro duc t Line a nd de s ign • Pro duc t Mix • Bra nding • P a cka ging • La be ling • P roduct s upport s e rvice s Product and Service Decisions Key Decisions • P roduct line le ngth • Indiv idual Pro duc t  Line s tre tching: • Pro duc t Line a dding products tha t • Pro duc t Mix a re highe r or lowe r price d tha n the e xis ting line  Line filling: a dding more ite ms within the pre s e nt price ra nge Product and Service Decisions Key Decisions • P roduct line width: • Indiv idual Pro duc t  numbe r of diffe re nt • Pro duc t Line product line s ca rrie d • Pro duc t Mix by company • P roduct line de pth:  Numbe r of diffe re nt ve rs ions of e a ch product in the line • P roduct line cons is te ncy Branding Strategy • Bra nds a re powe rful a s s e ts tha t mus t be ca re fully de ve lope d / ****naged. • Bra nds with s trong e quity ha ve **** ny compe titive a dva nta ge s :  High cons ume r a wa re ne s s  S trong bra nd loya lty  He lps whe n introducing ne w products  Le s s s us ce ptible to price compe tition Brand Strategy Key Decisions • Thre e le ve ls of pos itioning: • Brand Po s itio ning • Brand Nam e  P roduct a ttribute s Se le c tio n  Le as t e ffe c tiv e • Brand Sp o ns o rs hip • Brand  Be ne fits  Be lie fs a nd va lue s De v e lo p m e nt  Tap s into e m o tio ns Brand Strategy Key Decisions • Good Bra nd Na me s : • Brand Po s itio ning  S ugge s t s ome thing a bout • Brand Nam e the product or its be ne fits Se le c tio n  Are e a s y to s a y, re cognize • Brand Sp o ns o rs hip a nd re me mbe r • Brand  Are dis tinctive De v e lo p m e nt  Are e xte nda ble  Tra ns la te we ll into othe r la ngua ge s  Ca n be re gis te re d a nd le ga lly prote cte d Brand Strategy Key Decisions • Ma nufa cture r bra nds • Brand Po s itio ning • P riva te (s tore ) bra nds • Brand Nam e  Cos tly to e s ta blis h a nd Se le c tio n promote • Brand Sp o ns o rs hip • Brand  Highe r profit **** rgins De v e lo p m e nt • Lice ns e d bra nds  Na me a nd cha ra cte r lice ns ing ha s grown • Co­bra nding  Adva nta ge s / dis a dva nta ge s Brand Strategy Key Decisions • Line e xte ns ions • Brand Po s itio ning  Minor cha nge s to e xis ting • Brand Nam e products Se le c tio n • Bra nd e xte ns ions • Brand Sp o ns o rs hip • Brand  S ucce s s ful bra nd na me s he lp introduce ne w De v e lo p m e nt products • Multibra nds  Multiple product e ntrie s in a product ca te gory • Ne w bra nds  Ne w product ca te gory Brand Strategy Line Extensions May Feature Different: • Fla vors • Forms • Colors • Ingre **** nts • P a cka ge S ize s Services Marketing • S e rvice s  Account for 74% of U.S . gros s dome s tic product.  S e rvice indus trie s include bus ine s s orga niza tions , gove rnme nt, a nd priva te not­for­profit orga niza tions . Services Marketing • Cha ra cte ris tics of S e rvice s  Inta ngibility  C o ns um e rs lo o k fo r s e rv ic e q uality s ig nals  Ins e pa ra bility  Se rv ic e s c an’t b e s e p arate d fro m p ro v ide rs  Va ria bility  Em p lo ye e s and o the r fac to rs re s ult in v ariab ility  P e ris ha bility  Se rv ic e s c an’t b e inv e nto rie d fo r late r s ale Services Marketing • S e rvice Firm Ma rke ting S tra te gie s  The S e rvice ­P rofit Cha in  Inte rnal Marke ting  Inte rac tiv e Marke ting  Ma na ging S e rvice Diffe re ntia tion  Ma na ging S e rvice Qua lity  Ma na ging S e rvice P roductivity Additional Product Considerations • P roduct De cis ions a nd S ocia l Re s pons ibility  Acquis itions a nd me rge rs  Le ga l complia nce  P roduct lia bility is s ue s  Wa rra ntie s Additional Product Considerations • Inte rna tiona l P roduct a nd S e rvice s Ma rke ting  S pe cia l cha lle nge s :  Whic h p ro duc ts s ho uld b e m arke te d inte rnatio nally?  Sho uld the p ro duc ts b e s tandardiz e d o r adap te d fo r w o rld m arke ts ?  Ho w s ho uld p ac kag ing b e adap te d?  Ho w c an o the r b arrie rs b e o v e rc o m e ?
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