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销售:管理有利润的客户关系8

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Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning: Building the Right Relationships with the Right Customers Cha pte r 8 Objectives • Be a ble to de fine the thre e s te ps of ta rge t **** rke ting: **** rke t s e gme nta tion, ta rge t **** rke ting, a nd **** rke t pos itioning. • Unde rs ta nd the **** jor ba s e s for s e gme nting cons ume r a nd bus ine s s **** rke ts . Objectives • Know how compa nie s ide ntify a ttra ctive **** rke t s e gme nts a nd how the y choos e a ta rge t **** rke ting s tra te gy. • Compre he nd how compa nie s pos ition the ir products for **** ximum compe titive a dva nta ge . Case Study Procter & Gamble • Sells multiple • Has also identified different niches brands within the within certain same product s eg ments category for a • Product variety of products modifications are useful: Tide offers • Brands feature a seven different different mix of benefits and appeal product to different formulations to Definition • Ma rke t S e gme nta tion:  Dividing a **** rke t into dis tinct groups with dis tinct ne e ds , cha ra cte ris tics , or be ha vior who might re quire s e pa ra te products or **** rke ting mixe s . Market Segmentation Topic s • Ge ogra phica l s e gme nta tion • Se g m e nting  Ma rke ting mixe s a re C o ns um e r Marke ts cus tomize d ge ogra phica lly • Se g m e nting • De mogra phic s e gme nta tion Bus ine s s Marke ts  Mos t popula r s e gme nta tion • Se g m e nting  De mogra phics a re clos e ly Inte rnatio nal Marke ts re la te d to ne e ds , wa nts a nd • Re q uire m e nts fo r us a ge ra te s Effe c tiv e Se g m e ntatio n • P s ychogra phic s e gme nta tion  Life s tyle , s ocia l cla s s , a nd pe rs ona lity­ba s e d s e gme nta tion • Be ha viora l s e gme nta tion  Typica lly done firs t Market Segmentation Geographic Segmentation Variables • World Re gion • Ne ighborhood • City or or Country • U.S . re gion Me tro S ize • S ta te • De ns ity • City • Cli**** te Market Segmentation Demographic Segmentation Variables • Age • Occupa tion • Gender • Educa tion • Fa mily s ize • Re ligion • Fa mily life cycle • Race • Income • Ge ne ra tion • Na tiona lity Market Segmentation Behavioral Segmentation Variables • Occa s ions • Us e r Ra te s • Be ne fits • Loya lty S ta tus • Us e r S ta tus • Re a dine s s S ta ge • Attitude Towa rd the P roduct Market Segmentation Topic s • De mogra phic s e gme nta tion • Se g m e nting  Indus try, compa ny s ize , C o ns um e r Marke ts loca tion • Se g m e nting • Ope ra ting va ria ble s Bus ine s s Marke ts  Te chnology, us a ge s ta tus , • Se g m e nting cus tome r ca pa bilitie s Inte rnatio nal Marke ts • P urcha s ing a pproa che s • Re q uire m e nts fo r • S itua tiona l fa ctors Effe c tiv e Se g m e ntatio n  Urge ncy, s pe cific a pplica tion, s ize of orde r • P e rs ona l cha ra cte ris tics  Buye r­s e lle r s imila rity, a ttitude s towa rd ris k, loya lty Market Segmentation Topic s • Ge ogra phic s e gme nta tion • Se g m e nting  Loca tion or re gion C o ns um e r Marke ts • Economic fa ctors • Se g m e nting Bus ine s s Marke ts  P opula tion income or le ve l of e conomic de ve lopme nt • Se g m e nting Inte rnatio nal Marke ts • P olitica l a nd le ga l fa ctors • Re q uire m e nts fo r  Type / s ta bility of gove rnme nt, Effe c tiv e mone ta ry re gula tions , a mount Se g m e ntatio n of bure a ucra cy, e tc. • Cultura l fa ctors  La ngua ge , re ligion, va lue s , a ttitude s , cus toms , be ha viora l pa tte rns Market Segmentation Topic s • Me a s ura ble • Se g m e nting  S ize , purcha s ing powe r, a nd C o ns um e r Marke ts profile of s e gme nt • Se g m e nting • Acce s s ible Bus ine s s Marke ts  Ca n be re a che d a nd s e rve d • Se g m e nting Inte rnatio nal Marke ts • S ubs ta ntia l • Re q uire m e nts fo r  La rge a nd profita ble e nough to Effe c tiv e s e rve Se g m e ntatio n • Diffe re ntia ble  Re s pond diffe re ntly • Actiona ble  Effe ctive progra ms ca n be de ve lope d Target Marketing • Eva lua ting Ma rke t S e gme nts  S e gme nt s ize a nd growth  S e gme nt s tructura l a ttra ctive ne s s  Le v e l o f c o m p e titio n  Sub s titute p ro duc ts  Po w e r o f b uye rs  Po w e rful s up p lie rs  Compa ny obje ctive s a nd re s ource s Target Marketing • Ta rge t Ma rke ting S tra te gie s  Undiffe re ntia te d (**** s s ) **** rke ting  Diffe re ntia te d (s e gme nte d) **** rke ting  Conce ntra te d (niche ) **** rke ting  Micro**** rke ting (loca l or individua l) **** rke ting Target Marketing • Choos ing a Ta rge t­Ma rke ting S tra te gy Re quire s Cons ide ra tion of:  Compa ny re s ource s  The de gre e of product va ria bility  P roduct’s life ­cycle s ta ge  Ma rke t va ria bility  Compe titors ’ **** rke ting s tra te gie s Target Marketing • S ocia lly Re s pons ible Ta rge ting  S ome s e gme nts a re a t s pe cia l ris k:  C hildre n  Inne r- c ity m ino rity c o ns um e rs  Inte rne t s ho p p e rs  Controve rs y occurs whe n the me thods us e d a re que s tiona ble . Positioning • P os itioning:  The pla ce the product occupie s in cons ume rs ’ minds re la tive to compe ting products .  Typica lly de fine d by cons ume rs on the ba s is of importa nt a ttribute s . Positioning • Choos ing a P os itioning S tra te gy:  Ide ntifying pos s ible compe titive a dva nta ge s Pro duc ts , s e rv ic e s , c hanne ls , p e o p le o r im ag e c an b e s o urc e s o f diffe re ntiatio n.  Choos ing the right compe titive a dva nta ge Ho w m any diffe re nc e s to p ro m o te ? – Unique s e lling propos ition – P os itioning e rrors to a void Whic h diffe re nc e s to p ro m o te ? Positioning Criteria for Meaningful Differences • Importa nt • Dis tinctive • S upe rior • Communica ble • P re e mptive • Afforda ble • P rofita ble Positioning • Choos ing a P os itioning S tra te gy:  S e le cting a n ove ra ll pos itioning s tra te gy Mo re fo r Mo re Value Pro p o s itio n Mo re fo r the Sam e Value Pro p o s itio n The Sam e fo r Le s s Value Pro p o s itio n Le s s fo r Muc h Le s s Value Pro p o s itio n Mo re fo r Le s s Value Pro p o s itio n Positioning • Choos ing a P os itioning S tra te gy:  De ve loping a pos itioning s ta te me nt Po s itio ning s tate m e nts s um m ariz e the c o m p any o r b rand p o s itio ning EXAMPLE: To (targ e t s e g m e nt and ne e d) o ur (b rand) is (c o nc e p t) that (p o int- o f- diffe re nc e ).  Communica ting the chos e n pos ition
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