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销售:管理有利润的客户关系6

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Consumer Markets and Consumer Buyer Behavior Cha pte r 6 Objectives • Be a ble to de fine the cons ume r **** rke t a nd cons truct a s imple mode l of cons ume r buye r be ha vior. • Know the four **** jor fa ctors tha t influe nce cons ume r buye r be ha vior. Objectives • Unde rs ta nd the **** jor type s of buying de cis ion be ha vior a nd the s ta ge s in the buye r de cis ion proce s s . • Be a ble to de s cribe the a doption a nd diffus ion proce s s for ne w products . Case Study Harley-Davids on • Harley “Hogs” • Fiercely loyal account for 1/5 of clientele revolves U.S. cycle sales around 7 core • Sales have customer types exceeded supply • Harley owners use for years their bikes to • 1986-2000: Four express their stock splits, lifestyle and increase of 7,100% attitudes Definitions • Cons ume r Buying Be ha vior  Buying be ha vior of individua ls a nd hous e holds tha t buy products for pe rs ona l cons umption. • Cons ume r Ma rke t  All individua ls /hous e holds who buy products for pe rs ona l cons umption. Model of Consumer Behavior • S timulus Re s pons e Mode l  Ma rke ting a nd othe r s timuli e nte r the buye r’s “bla ck box” a nd produce ce rta in choice /purcha s e re s pons e s .  Ma rke te rs mus t figure out wha t is ins ide of the buye r’s “bla ck box” a nd how s timuli a re cha nge d to re s pons e s . Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Key Factors • Culture • C ultural • S ubculture • So c ial • Pe rs o nal  His pa nic • Ps yc ho lo g ic al cons ume rs  Africa n Ame rica ns  As ia n Ame rica ns  Ma ture cons ume rs • S ocia l Cla s s Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior • His pa nics  35 million cons ume rs purcha s e $425 billion worth of goods a nd s e rvice s .  Expe cte d to grow ****% in 20 ye a rs .  S pa nis h me dia **** ke s group e a s y to re a ch.  Bra nd loya l group. Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior • Africa n Ame rica ns  35 million cons ume rs purcha s e $527 billion worth of goods a nd s e rvice s .  Growing more a fflue nt / s ophis tica te d.  P rice a nd bra nd na me cons cious ; qua lity a nd s e le ction a re importa nt.  Ce rta in me dia ta rge t this group. Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior • As ia n Ame rica ns  10 million cons ume rs purcha s e $229 billion worth of goods a nd s e rvice s .  Fa s te s t growing, mos t a fflue nt s ubculture .  Ma ny na tiona litie s compris e this group.  Cons ume r pa cka ge d goods compa nie s now ta rge t this group more he a vily. Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior • Ma ture Cons ume rs  75 million cons ume rs a ge d 50+ will grow to 115 million within 25 ye a rs .  Ma ture cons ume rs control 50% of a ll dis cre tiona ry income .  Attra ctive **** rke t for tra ve l, re s ta ura nt, a nd cos me tics products , a mong othe rs . Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Key Factors • Groups • C ultural  Me mbe rs hip • So c ial  Re fe re nce • Pe rs o nal • Ps yc ho lo g ic al  As p iratio nal g ro up s  Opinion le a de rs  Buz z m arke ting • Fa mily  Childre n ca n influe nce • Role s a nd S ta tus Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Key Factors • Age a nd life cycle • C ultural • Occupa tion • So c ial • Pe rs o nal • Economic s itua tion • Ps yc ho lo g ic al • Life s tyle  Activitie s , inte re s ts , a nd opinions  Life s tyle s e gme nta tion • P e rs ona lity a nd s e lf­ concept  Bra nd pe rs ona lity Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Brand Personality Dimensions • S ince rity • Excite me nt • Rugge dne s s • Compe te nce • S ophis tica tion Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Key Factors • Motiva tion • C ultural  Ne e ds provide motive s for • So c ial cons ume r be ha vior • Pe rs o nal • Ps yc ho lo g ic al  Motiva tion re s e a rch  Ma s low’s hie ra rchy of ne e ds • P e rce ption  S e le ctive a tte ntion, s e le ctive dis tortion, s e le ctive re te ntion • Le a rning  Drive s , s timuli, cue s , re s pons e s a nd re inforce me nt • Be lie fs a nd a ttitude s Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs S e lf­a ctua liza tion Es te e m Ne e ds S ocia l Ne e ds S a fe ty Ne e ds P hys iologica l Ne e ds Types of Buying- Decision Behavior Diffe re nc e Inv o lv e m e nt Le v e l b e tw e e n b rands High Low S ignifica nt Complex Variety-s eeking Diffe re nce s buying buying behavior behavior Few Habitual buying Diffe re nce s Dis s onance- behavior reducing buying behavior The Buyer Decision Process • Five S ta ge s :  Ne e d re cognition  Infor**** tion s e a rch  Eva lua tion of a lte rna tive s  P urcha s e de cis ion  P os tpurcha s e be ha vior The Buyer Decision Process Proc es s • Ne e ds ca n be Stages trigge re d by: • Ne e d re c o g nitio n  Inte rna l s timuli • Info rm atio n s e arc h • Ev aluatio n o f alte rnativ e s  No rm al ne e ds b e c o m e • Purc has e de c is io n s tro ng e no ug h to driv e • Po s tp urc has e b e hav io r b e hav io r  Exte rna l s timuli  Adv e rtis e m e nts  Frie nds o f frie nds The Buyer Decision Process Proc es s • Cons ume rs e xhibit Stages he ighte ne d a tte ntion or a ctive ly s e a rch for • Ne e d re c o g nitio n infor**** tion. • Info rm atio n s e arc h • Ev aluatio n o f alte rnativ e s • S ource s of infor**** tion: • Purc has e de c is io n • Po s tp urc has e b e hav io r  P e rs ona l  Comme rcia l  P ublic  Expe rie ntia l • Word­of­mouth The Buyer Decision Process Proc es s • Eva lua tion proce dure Stages de pe nds on the cons ume r a nd the buying s itua tion. • Ne e d re c o g nitio n • Info rm atio n s e arc h • Mos t buye rs e va lua te • Ev aluatio n o f alte rnativ e s multiple a ttribute s , e a ch of • Purc has e de c is io n which is we ighte d • Po s tp urc has e b e hav io r diffe re ntly. • At the e nd of the e va lua tion s ta ge , purcha s e inte ntions a re forme d. The Buyer Decision Process Proc es s • Two fa ctors inte rce de Stages be twe e n purcha s e inte ntions a nd the • Ne e d re c o g nitio n a ctua l de cis ion: • Info rm atio n s e arc h • Ev aluatio n o f alte rnativ e s  Attitude s of othe rs • Purc has e de c is io n  Une xpe cte d • Po s tp urc has e b e hav io r s itua tiona l fa ctors The Buyer Decision Process Proc es s • S a tis fa ction is importa nt: Stages  De lighte d cons ume rs • Ne e d re c o g nitio n e nga ge in pos itive word­ • Info rm atio n s e arc h of­mouth. • Ev aluatio n o f alte rnativ e s • Purc has e de c is io n  Unha ppy cus tome rs te ll on • Po s tp urc has e b e hav io r a ve ra ge 11 othe r pe ople .  It cos ts more to a ttra ct a ne w cus tome r tha n it doe s to re ta in a n e xis ting cus tome r. • Cognitive dis s ona nce is common Buyer Decision Process for New Products • Ne w P roducts  Good, s e rvice or ide a tha t is pe rce ive d by cus tome rs a s ne w. • S ta ge s in the Adoption P roce s s  Ma rke te rs s hould he lp cons ume rs move through the s e s ta ge s . Buyer Decision Process for New Products Stages in the Adoption Process • Awa re ne s s • Inte re s t • Eva lua tion • Tria l • Adoption Buyer Decision Process for New Products • Individua l Diffe re nce s in Innova tive ne s s  Cons ume rs ca n be cla s s ifie d into five a dopte r ca te gorie s , e a ch of which be ha ve s diffe re ntly towa rd ne w products . • P roduct Cha ra cte ris tics a nd Adoption  Five product cha ra cte ris tics influe nce the a doption ra te . Buyer Decision Process for New Products Adopter Categories • Innova tors • Ea rly Adopte rs • Ea rly Ma jority • La te Ma jority • La gga rds Buyer Decision Process for New Products Product Characteristics • Re la tive Adva nta ge • Comple xity • Compa tibility • Divis ibility • Communica bility Buyer Decision Process for New Products • Inte rna tiona l Cons ume r Be ha vior  Va lue s , a ttitude s a nd be ha viors diffe r gre a tly in othe r countrie s .  P hys ica l diffe re nce s e xis t which re quire cha nge s in the **** rke ting mix.  Cus toms va ry from country to country.  Ma rke te rs mus t de cide the de gre e to which the y will a da pt the ir **** rke ting e fforts .
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