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销售:管理有利润的客户关系04_exs

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The Marketing Environment Cha pte r 4 Objectives • Know the e nvironme nta l force s tha t a ffe ct the compa ny’s a bility to s e rve its cus tome rs . • Re a lize how cha nge s in the de mogra phic a nd e conomic e nvironme nts a ffe ct **** rke ting de cis ions . Objectives • Ide ntify the **** jor tre nds in the firm’s na tura l a nd te chnologica l e nvironme nts . • Know the ke y cha nge s in the politica l a nd cultura l e nvironme nts . • Unde rs ta nd how compa nie s ca n re a ct to the **** rke ting e nvironme nt. Case Study Volks wag en • “Mille nnia l fe ve r” s e t • The ne w VW be e tle the s ta ge to bring e njoye d cros s ­ ba ck the Be e tle ge ne ra tiona l a ppe a l • VW’s inve s tme nt: • Ea rne d **** ny a wa rds $ 560 million • Be e tle now a ccounts • De **** nd quickly for ove r 25% of outs trippe d s upply compa ny s a le s Discussion: Will the flower-power Microbus succeed next? Key Environments • Ma rke ting Environme nt  The a ctors a nd force s tha t a ffe ct a firm’s a bility to build a nd **** inta in s ucce s s ful re la tions hips with cus tome rs .  As pe cts of the **** rke ting e nvironme nt:  Mic ro e nv iro nm e nt  Mac ro e nv iro nm e nt The Microenvironment Actors Affecting a Firm’s Ability to Serve Customers • Compa ny • Compe titors • S upplie rs • P ublics • Cus tome r • Ma rke ting Ma rke ts Inte rme dia rie s The Microenvironment • De pa rtme nts within the compa ny impa ct **** rke ting pla nning. • S upplie rs he lp cre a te a nd de live r cus tome r va lue .  Tre a t s upplie rs a s pa rtne rs . • Ma rke ting inte rme dia rie s he lp s e ll, promote , a nd dis tribute goods .  Inte rme dia rie s ta ke **** ny forms . The Macroenvironment • Cus tome r **** rke ts mus t be s tu**** d.  Cons ume r, bus ine s s , gove rnme nt, re s e lle r a nd inte rna tiona l **** rke ts e xis t. • S ucce s s ful compa nie s provide be tte r cus tome r va lue tha n the compe tition.  S ize a nd indus try pos ition he lp to de te rmine the a ppropria te compe titive s tra te gy. • Va rious publics mus t a ls o be cons ide re d. The Microenvironment Types of Publics • Fina ncia l • Loca l • Me dia • Ge ne ra l • Gove rnme nt • Inte rna l • Citize n Action The Macroenvironment Macroenvironmental Forces • De mogra phic • Te chnologica l • Economic • P olitica l • Na tura l • Cultura l The Macroenvironment • Ke y De mogra phic Tre nds  World popula tion growth  Cha nging a ge s tructure  The U.S. p o p ulatio n c o ns is ts o f s e v e n g e ne ratio nal g ro up s . – Ba by boome rs , Ge ne ra tion X, a nd Ge ne ra tion Y a re ke y groups .  Dis tinc t s e g m e nts typ ic ally e x is t w ithin The Macroenvironment Key • Born be twe e n 1946 a nd Generations 19**** • Bab y • Re pre s e nt 28% of the Bo o m e rs popula tion; e a rn 50% of pe rs ona l income • Ge ne ratio n X • Ge ne ratio n Y • Ma ny mini­s e gme nts e xis t within the boome r group • Ente ring pe a k e a rning ye a rs a s the y **** ture • Lucra tive **** rke t for tra ve l, e nte rta inme nt, hous ing, a nd more The Macroenvironment Key • Born be twe e n 1965 a nd Generations 1976 • Bab y • Firs t la tchke y childre n Bo o m e rs • Ma inta in a ca utious • Ge ne ratio n X e conomic outlook • Ge ne ratio n Y • S ha re ne w cultura l conce rns • Re pre s e nt $125 billion in a nnua l purcha s ing powe r • Will be pri**** ry buye rs of most goods by 2010 The Macroenvironment Key • Born be twe e n 1977 a nd Generations 1994 • Bab y • 72 million s trong; a lmos t Bo o m e rs a s la rge a group a s the ir ba by boome r pa re nts • Ge ne ratio n X • Ge ne ratio n Y • Ne w products , s e rvice s , a nd me dia ca te r to Ge nY • Compute r, Inte rne t a nd digita lly s a a vy • Cha lle nging ta rge t for **** rke te rs The Macroenvironment • Ke y De mogra phic Tre nds  Cha nging Ame rica n hous e hold  Ge ogra phic popula tion s hifts  Be tte r­e duca te d, more white ­colla r workforce  Incre a s ing Dive rs ity The Macroenvironment • The Economic Environme nt  Affe cts cons ume r purcha s ing powe r a nd s pe nding pa tte rns .  Two type s of na tiona l e conomie s : s ubs is te nce vs . indus tria l.  U.S . cons ume rs now s pe nd ca re fully a nd de s ire gre a te r va lue . The Macroenvironment • Ke y Economic Tre nds  U.S . income dis tribution is s ke we d.  Up p e r c las s , m iddle c las s , w o rking c las s and the unde rc las s .  Ric h are g e tting ric he r, the m iddle c las s is s hrinking , and the unde rc las s re m ains p o o r.  Cons ume r s pe nding pa tte rns a re cha nging. The Macroenvironment • The Na tura l Environme nt  Conce rn for the na tura l e nvironme nt ha s grown s te a dily, incre a s ing the importa nce of the s e tre nds :  Sho rtag e o f raw m ate rials  Inc re as e d p o llutio n  Inc re as e d g o v e rnm e ntal inte rv e ntio n The Macroenvironment • Ke y Te chnologica l Tre nds  The te chnologica l e nvironme nt is cha ra cte rize d by ra pid cha nge .  Ne w te chnologie s cre a te ne w opportunitie s a nd **** rke ts but **** ke old te chnologie s obs ole te .  The U.S . le a ds the world in re s e a rch a nd de ve lopme nt s pe nding. The Macroenvironment • The P olitica l Environme nt  Include s la ws , gove rnme nta l a ge ncie s , a nd pre s s ure groups tha t impa ct orga niza tions a nd individua ls . Ke y tre nds include :  Inc re as e d le g is latio n to p ro te c t b us ine s s e s as w e ll as c o ns um e rs .  C hang e s in g o v e rnm e ntal ag e nc y e nfo rc e m e nt.  Inc re as e d e m p has is o n e thic al b e hav io r and s o c ial re s p o ns ib ility. The Macroenvironment • The Cultura l Environme nt  Is compos e d of ins titutions a nd othe r force s tha t a ffe ct a s ocie ty’s ba s ic va lue s , pe rce ptions , pre fe re nce s , a nd be ha viors .  Culture ca n influe nce de cis ion **** king.  Core be lie fs a re pe rs is te nt; s e conda ry cultura l va lue s cha nge a nd s hift more e a s ily.  The cultura l va lue s of a s ocie ty a re e xpre s s e d through pe ople ’s vie ws . The Macroenvironment Cultural values are expressed via how people view: • The ms e lve s • S ocie ty • Othe rs • Na ture • Orga niza tions • The Unive rs e Responding to the Marketing Environment • Re a ctive : P a s s ive Acce pta nce a nd Ada pta tion  Compa nie s de s ign s tra te gie s tha t a void thre a ts a nd ca pita lize upon opportunitie s . • P roa ctive : Environme nta l Ma na ge me nt  Us e of lobbyis ts , P R, a dve rtoria ls , la ws uits , compla ints , a nd contra ctua l a gre e me nts to influe nce e nvironme nta l force s .
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