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1177-1-1 CONSUMER BEH****IOR Fourth Edition Michael R. Solomon CChhaapptteerr 1177 The Creation and Diffusion of Consumer Culture Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall CCuullttuurree PPrroodduuccttiioonn 1177-2-2 PPrroocceessss Symbol Pool Infor****l Ga Creative Managerial Consumer Innovation/ Grass Subsystem Subsystem Roots Movement Culture Production System Communications Subsystem Cultural Gatekeepers For****l Gatekeepers Consumer Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall CCuullttuurraall PPrroodduuccttiioonn 1177-3-3 SSyysstteemmss • The set of individuals and organizations responsible for creating and ****rketing a cultural product is a Cultural Production System (CPS). It consists of: – Creative Subsystem - responsible for generating new symbols and/or products. – Managerial Subsystem - responsible for selecting, ****king tangible, ****ss producing, and ****naging the distribution of new symbols and/or products. – Communications Subsystem - responsible for giving meaning to the new product and communicating these symbolic attributes to the consumer. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall HHiigghh CCuullttuurree aanndd 1177-4-4 PPooppuullaarr CC•uuClltutuultrureree Production Systems create ****ny diverse kinds of products, such as Arts and Crafts: – An Art Product is viewed pri****rily as an object of aesthetic contemplation without any functional value. – A Craft Product is admired because of the beauty with which it performs some function. • Mass culture churns out products specifically for a ****ss ****rket and ****ny follow a Cultural Formula where certain roles and props occur consistently such as in detective or ro****nce novels. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall RReeaalliittyy 1177-5-5 EEnngRgeiiannlieteyeeErnrgiininneggering Occurs as Elements of Popular Culture are Appropriated by Marketers and Converted to Vehicles for Promotional Strategies. RReeaalliittyyEEnnggiinneeeerriinnggiissAAcccceelleerraattiinnggdduuee ttootthheePPooppuullaarriittyyooffPPrroodduuccttPPllaacceemmeenntt.. SSppeecciPifPfiricrcooPdPdruruooccdtdtuPuPccltlatascsc/e/eBmBmrraeaennnndtdtiNisNsatathmhmeeeeIsInsnsisinenerMrMttioiooovnvniieoeosfsf&&TTVV.. MMeeddiiaaIIm****aggeessAAppppeeaarrttooSSiiggnniiffiiccaannttllyy IInnfflluueenncceeCCoonnssuummeerrss’’PPeerrcceeppttiioonnssooffRReeaalliittyy.. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall DDiiffffuussiioonn ooff 1177-6-6 IInnDninffouosvivonaaottfiiIononnnovssations Refers to the Process Whereby a New Product, Service, or Idea Spreads Through a Population. Percentage of Adopters Early Majority Late Majority Innovators Early 34% 34% Laggards Adopters 2.5% 13.5% 16% Early Time of Adoption Late Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall AAddoopptteerr 1177-7-7 CCaatteeggoorriieess • Innovators - 2.5% of the population, the first to buy, will buy novel products. • Early Adopters - 13.5 % of the population, share ****ny characteristics with the Innovators, but they have a higher degree or concern for social acceptance. • Early and Late Majority - 68% of the population, ****instream public, interested in new things, but not too new. • Laggards - 16% of the population, the last to adopt a product. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall TTyyppeess ooff 1177-8-8 IInnnnoovvaattiioonnss SSyymmbboolliicc TTeecchhnnoollooggiiccaall IInnnnoovvaattiioonn IInnnnoovvaattiioonn CCoommmmuunniiccaatteessaaNNeeww IInnvvoollvveessSSoommee SSoocciiaallMMeeaanniinngg FFuunnccttiioonnaallCChhaannggee Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall BBeehhaavviioorraall DDeem****annddss 1177-9-9 ooff IInnnnoovvaattiioonnss Degree to Which an Innovation Discontinuous Innovation Creates De****nds Changes in Behavior Major Changes in the Way We Live DDyynnaammiiccaallllyyCCoonnttiinnuuoouussIInnnnoovvaattiioonn MMoorreePPrroonnoouunncceeddCChhaannggeeiinntthhee EExxiissttiinnggPPrroodduucctt CCoonnttiinnuuoouuss IInnnnoovvaattiioonn MMooddiiffiiccaattiioonnooffaannEExxiissttiinnggPPrroodduucctt Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall PPrreerreeqquuiissiitteess ffoorr 1177-1-100 SSuucccceessssffuul l AAddooppttiioonn Compatibility Relative Advantage Must Give Advantages Must Fit Consumer’s Other Products Don’t Lifestyle Have Observability PPrroodduucctt Trialability CChhaarraacctteerriissttiiccss Ones That are ffoorrSSuucccceessssffuull Reduce Risk by Observable Letting AAddooppttiioonn Spread Faster Complexity Consumer Try it Lower The Better Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall TThhee FFaasshhiioonn 1177-1-111 SSyyFssatstheeiommn is the Process of Social Diffusion by Which a New Style is Adopted by Some Group(s) of Consumers. CCuullttuurraall CCoolllleeccttiivvee CCaatteeggoorriieess SSeelleeccttiioonn AAffffeeccttMMaannyy PPrroocceessssbbyyWWhhiicchh DDiiffffeerreennttPPrroodduuccttss CCeerrttaaiinnSSyymmbboolliicc AAlltteerrnnaattiivveessaarree aannddSSttyylleess CChhoosseennOOvveerrOOtthheerrss CCoossttuummeessWWoorrnnbbyy GGrroouuppPPrroodduuccttssbbyy CCeelleebbrriittiieessCCaann CCaatteeggoorriieess AAffffeeccttFFaasshhiioonn Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall BBeehhaavviioorraall SScciieennccee 1177-1-122 PPeerrssppeeccttiivvee oonn FFaasshhiioonn PPssyycchhoollooggiiccaall EEccoonnoommiicc MMooddeellssooff FFaasshhiioonn SSoocciioollooggiiccaall Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall FFaasshhiioonn LLiiffee-- 1177-1-133 CCyyccllee Acceleration General Acceptance Rise Innovation Decline Obsolescence Introduction Acceptance Regression stages stages stages AA NNoorrm****all FFaasshhiioonn CCyyccllee Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall CCyycclleess ooff FFaasshhiioonn 1177-1-144 AAddooppttiioonn • Introduction Stages – Product is used by a s****ll number of Innovators. • Acceptance Stages – Product enjoys increased social visibility and acceptance by large segments of the population. – A Classic is a fashion with an extremely long acceptance cycle. – A Fad is a short-lived fashion. • Regression Stages – Product reaches a state of social saturation as it becomes overused, and sinks into decline and obsolesce as new products rise to take its place. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall FFaadd oorr 1177-1-155 TTQrrueeesnntidodn?s?to Ask to Determine if a Trend, Which Lasts for Some Time, is Occurring Include: DDooeessiittFFiittWWiitthhBBaassiiccLLiiffeessttyylleeCChhaannggeess?? WWhhaattaarreetthheeBBeenneeffiittss?? CCaanniittbbeePPeerrssoonnaalliizzeedd?? IIssiittaaTTrreennddoorraaSSiiddeeEEffffeecctt?? WWhhaattOOtthheerrCChhaannggeessHHaavveeOOccccuurrrreeddiinntthheeMMaarrkkeett?? WWhhooHHaassAAddoopptteeddtthheeCChhaannggee?? Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall TThhiinnkk GGlloobbaallllyy,, AAcctt 1177-1-166 LLooccaallllyy Two Views Exist Regarding the Necessity of Developing Separate Marketing Plans for Each Culture. Etic Perspective Emic Perspective Adopting a Standardized Adopting a Strategy Which Focuses on Localized Strategy Which Focuses on Commonalties Across Variations Within a Cultures. Culture. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall DDeetteerrmmiinniinngg WWhheetthheerr ttoo 1177-1-177 UUttiilliizzee tPtP•hheeCee–rursTsElEtapupsttrtieeaeiccslccdaottoniifidrvfvreseEretEeylmnmecs,eiicscrelevant to ****rketers. – Advertising preferences and regulations, – Cultural norms toward taboos and ****uality. • To ****ximize the chances of success for multicultural advertising campaigns, ****rketers should target those who share a common worldview, who ****y include: • Affluent people who are “global citizens”, and – Young people who are influenced by the media. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall TThhee DDiiffffuussiioonn ooff WWeesstteerrnn 1177-1-188 CCoonnssuCuCrmremeoolelieizzararttiioCoCnnuOuOclclctctuuuurrsrsreWeWhheennFFoorreeiiggnnIInnfflluueenncceess aarreeAAbbssoorrbbeeddaannddIInntteeggrraatteeddWWiitthhLLooccaallMMeeaanniinnggss TThheeWWeessttiissaaNNeettEExxppoorrtteerrooffPPooppuullaarrCCuullttuurree TThheeUU..SS..IInnvvaaddeessAAssiiaa EEmmeerrggiinnggCCoonnssuummeerrCCuullttuurreessiinnTTrraannssiittiioonnaallEEccoonnoommiieess SSiiggnnssTThhaatttthheeWWeesstteerrnnCCuullttuurreeIInnvvaassiioonniissSSlloowwiinngg Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall
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