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消费者行为(英文版)16

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CONSUMER BEH****IOR 1166-1-1 Fourth Edition Michael R. Solomon CChhaapptteerr 1166 Cultural Influences on Consumer Behavior Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall UUnnddeerrssttaannddiinngg 1166-2-2 CCuullttuurree Culture is the Accumulation of Shared Meanings, Rituals, Norms, and Traditions Among the Members of an Organization or Society and Determines: OOvveerraallllPPrriioorriittiieessAACCoonnssuummeerrAAttttaacchheess ttooDDiiffffeerreennttAAccttiivviittiieessaannddPPrroodduuccttss SSuucccceessssoorrFFaaiilluurreeooff SSppeecciiffiiccPPrroodduuccttss aannddSSeerrvviicceess Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall AAssppeeccttss ooff 1166-3-3 CCAuuClluttluuturrraeel System Consists of 3 Functional Areas: SSoocciiaallSSttrruuccttuurree EEccoollooggyy WWaayyiinnWWhhiicchhOOrrddeerrllyy WWaayyaaSSyysstteemmiiss SSoocciiaallLLiiffeeiiss AAddaapptteeddttoo MMaaiinnttaaiinneedd IIttssHHaabbiittaatt IIddeeoollooggyy WWaayyiinnWWhhiicchhPPeeooppllee RReellaatteettooTThheeiirr EEnnvviirroonnmmeennttaanndd SSoocciiaal l GGrroouuppss Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall OOtthheerr AAssppeeccttss ooff 1166-4-4 CCAlutuholltutuguhrrEeevery Culture is Different, 4 Dimensions Appear to Account for Much of This Variability. PPoowweerrDDiissttaannccee How Interpersonal Relationships Form When Power Differences Exist. UUnncceerrttaaiinnttyyAAvvooiiddaannccee Degree to Which People Feel Threatened by Ambiguous Situations. MMaassccuulliinniittyy//FFeemmiinniinniittyy Degree to Which Sex Roles Are Clearly Delineated. IInnddiivviidduuaalliissmm Extent to Which the Welfare of the Individual Versus the Group is Valued. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall VVaalluueess ooff aa 1166-5-5 CCuullttuurree VVaalluueess aarree VVeerryy GGeenneerraall IIddeeaass AAbboouutt GGoooodd aanndd BBaadd GGooaallss EEnnaacctteeddNNoorrmmss CCrreesscciivvee NNoorrmmss EExxpplliicciittllyyDDeecciiddeeddOOnn EEmmbbeeddddeeddiinnCCuullttuurree CCuussttoommss MMoorreess CCoonnvveennttiioonnss Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall MMyytthhss 1166-6-6 A Myth is a Story Containing Symbolic Elements That Expresses the Shared Emotions and Ideals Of a Culture. Myths Serve 4 Interrelated Functions in a Culture: MMeettaapphhyyssiiccaall CCoossmmoollooggiiccaall PPssyycchhoollooggiiccaall SSoocciioollooggiiccaall Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall TTyyppeess ooff RRiittuuaall 1166-7-7 EAERxxitppuaeel rirsiiaeeSnnetccoefeMultiple, Symbolic Behaviors That Occur in a Fixed Sequence and That Tend to Be Repeated Periodically. Ritual Type Examples RReelliiggiioouuss BBaappttiissmm,,MMeeddiittaattiioonn,,MMaassss RRiitteessooffPPaassssaaggee Graduation, Marriage Cultural FFeessttiivvaallss,,HHoolliiddaayyss Civic PPaarraaddeess,,EElleeccttiioonnss,,TTrriiaallss GGrroouupp BBuussiinneessssNNeeggoottiiaattiioonnss FFaammiillyy Mealtimes, Birthdays PPeerrssoonnaall GGrroooommiinngg,,HHoouusseehhoolldd Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall GGiifftt -- GGiivviinngg RRiittuuaallss 1166-8-8 The Gift - Giving Ritual Can Be Broken Down Into the Following Three Distinct Stages: GGeessttaattiioonn PPrreesseennttaattiioonn RReeffoorrmmuullaattiioonn GGiivveerriiss PPrroocGcGeeisifsftstsooff BBBeBeototwnwnededesesnn MMAAononttiEivEvavavteteenenddttBtBtooyy EExxcchhaannggee PPaarrttiieessAArree AAddjjuusstteedd BBuuyyaaGGiifftt Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall HHoolliiddaayy 1166-9-9 RRWiithtuuataaRllsistuals Are Associated With the Following Holidays? TThhaannkkssggiivviinngg VVaalleennttiinnee’’ssDDaayy SSeeccrreettaarriieess’ ’ DDaayy GGrraannd****aarreennttss’ ’ DDaayy CChhrriissttm****ass NNeewwYYeeaarr’’ss HHaalllloowweeeenn Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall RRiitteess ooff 1166-1-100 PPaaRsistesssaoafggPaeessage Can be Construed as Being Special Times Marked by a Change in Social Status. SSttaaggee11.. SSeeppaarraattiioonn DDeettaacchhiinnggFFrroommtthheeOOrriiggiinnaallGGrroouupp SSttaaggee22.. LLiimmiinnaalliittyy PPeerrssoonniissIInn--BBeettwweeeennSSttaattuusseess SSttaaggee33.. AAggggrreeggaattiioonn PPeerrssoonnRReeeenntteerrssSSoocciieettyyAAfftteerr RRiittee--ooff--PPaassssaaggeeiissCCoommpplleettee Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall SSaaccrreedd aanndd PPrrooffaannee 1166-1-111 CCoonnssuummppttiioonn Sacred Profane Consumption Consumption > Involves Objects and > Involves Consumer Events That Are “Set Objects and Events Apart” From Nor****l That Are Ordinary, Activities, and Are Everyday Objects Treated With Some and Events That Do Degree of Respect or Not Share The Awe. “Specialness” of Sacred Ones. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall DDoom****aiinnss ooff 1166-1-122 SSaaccrreedd CCo•onSnasscuruemmd Ppplatticioeosnn – May have religious or mystical significance. – Others are created from the profane world and given special sacred qualities (i.e. Disney World, or shopping ****lls) – The home is a particularly scared place. • Sacred People – Memorabilia can take on special meaning, from baseball cards to clothing the special person has touched or worn. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall DDoom****aiinnss ooff 1166-1-133 SSaaccrreedd CCoo• nnSsascuuremmd pEpvtteiionotnsn – Many consumer’s activities (events) have taken on special status. » Examples would include the Super Bowl, the Olympics, the World Series, even family vacations. – Personal mementos from sacred events can include: » Local products (i.e. wine from California). » Pictorial i****ges (i.e. post cards). » “A piece of the event” such as a rock or seashell. » Symbolic shorthand (i.e. a miniature Statue of Liberty). » Markers (i.e. Hard Rock Cafe T-shirts). Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall FFrroomm SSaaccrreedd ttoo PPrrooffaannee,, 1166-1-144 aanndd •BBSaaocmckke sAAagcgraeadiinnthings have become profane, and some profane things have become sacred. – Desacralization occurs when a sacred item or symbol is removed from its special place or is duplicated in ****ss quantities, becoming profane as a result. – Examples: Monuments, artwork, American flag, religion. – Sacralization occurs when ordinary objects, events, and even people, take on sacred meaning to a culture or to specific groups within a culture. – Examples: Super Bowl, or Elvis. » Objectification occurs when sacred qualities are attributed to mundane objects. » Collecting refers to the syste****tic acquisition of a particular object or set of objects. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall
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