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消费者行为(英文版)13

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CONSUMER BEH****IOR 1133-1-1 Fourth Edition Michael R. Solomon CChhaapptteerr 1133 Income and Social Class Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall IInnccoommee 1133-2-2 PP•aaTthttteeearrvnnesrsage American’s standard of living continues to improve and can be linked to: – Women’s roles in the workplace - women are obtaining more high-paying occupations, and – Increases in the attainment of education - college graduates earn 50% more than high school grads. • Consumer de****nd for goods and services depends on ability and willingness to buy . – Discretionary Income is the money available to a household over and above that required for a comfortable standard of living. – Consumers tend to equate money with security and comfort and they are anxious about holding on to what they have. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall CCoonnssuummeerr 1133-3-3 CC•ooCnnofnfiisddueemnneccrese’ beliefs about what the future holds is an indicator of Consumer Confidence. –Reflects the extent to which people are optimistic or pessimistic about the future health of the economy. –When people are pessimistic about their prospects, they tend to cut back their spending and take on less debt. –When they are optimistic about the future, they tend to reduce the amount they save, take on more debt, and buy discretionary items. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall SSoocciiaal l 1133-4-4 CClSlaaocssiassl Class is Determined by a Complex Set of Variables, Including: Income, Family Background, and Occupation. Social Class Influences: HHoowwMMuucchhMMoonneeyyWWiillllBBeeSSppeenntt HHoowwMMoonneeyyWWiillllBBeeSSppeenntt AAcccceessssttooRReessoouurrcceessSSuucchhaassEEdduuccaattiioonn,,HHoouussiinngg,, aannddCCoonnssuummeerrGGooooddss TTaasstteeaannddLLiiffeessttyylleess Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall SSoocciiaall 1133-5-5 SSttrraSaottciiifafilicSctaraatttiifioiocanntion Refers to the Creation of Artificial Divisions In a Society by: Achieved Status Ascribed Status Earned Through Hard Obtained Through Luck Work or Inheritance SSttaattuuss HHiieerraarrcchhyy SSoommeeMMeemmbbeerrssAArree SSoommeehhoowwBBeetttteerrOOfff TThhaannOOtthheerrss Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall CCllaassss SSttrruuccttuurree iinn tthhee 1133-6-6 UU..SS.. UUppppeerr--UUppppeerr 00..33%% AAcccceessssttooRReessoouurrcceessSSuucchhAAssMMoonneey,y, LLoowweerr--UUppppeerr EEdduuccaatitioon,n,aannddLLuuxxuurryyGGooooddss 11..22%% UUppppeerr--MMiiddddllee 1122..55%% MMiiddddlleeCCllaassss 3322%% WWoorrkkiinnggCCllaassss 3388%% LLoowweerrBBuuttNNoottLLoowweesstt 99%% RReeaal l LLoowweerr--LLoowweerr 77%% Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall SSoocciiaal l 1133-7-7 MMoobbiilliittyy Social Mobility Refers to the Passage of Individuals From One Social Class to Another. Upward Mobility HHoorriizzoonnttaallMMoobbiilliittyy Downward Mobility Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall CCoommppoonneennttss ooff SSoocciiaall 1133-8-8 CCllaassss OOccccuuppaattiioonnaall PPrreessttiiggee IInnccoommee EEdduuccaattiioonnaall AAttttaaiinnmmeenntt Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall RReellaattiioonnsshhiipp BBeettwweeeenn 1133-9-9 IInnccoommee aanndd SSoocciiaall CCllaassss • The relationship between income and social class: – More income doesn’t necessarily result in increased status or changed consumption patterns. – Income predicts purchase of expensive products without status (i.e. ****jor appliances). – Social class can predict the purchase of low to moderate priced symbolic products (i.e. cosmetics). – Both social class and income are needed to predict purchases of expensive, symbolic products (i.e. cars, homes). Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall MMeeaassuurreemmeenntt ooff SSoocciiaall 1133-1-100 CCllaassss CChhaannggeessiinn FFaammiillyy SSttrruuccttuurree WWoommeenn Problems IInnccrreeaassiinngg aanndd With AAnnoonnyymmiittyy SSoocciiaall Measures of CCllaassss Social Class SSttaattuuss IInnccoonnssiisstteennccyy Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall HHooww SSoocciiaall CCllaassss 1133-1-111 AAffffeeccttss Worldview PPuurrcchhaassee DDeecciissiioonnss Appropriate? Codes Considerations Taste for Constructing Cultures Marketing Messages Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall TTaarrggeettiinngg DDiiffffeerreenntt 1133-1-122 IInnccoommee LLeevveellss Targeting the Rich Targeting the Poor MMAaAafnffnflyulyueFeFninritrmtmMMssaaTrTrkakaerergtgtsesett Luxury Products Are B1B14e4e%l%olowowoftftAhAhememPePeororivcivceaearnrtntsysyLLLLiivniivneeee MMaannyyFFeSeeSeololcAcAileiileetietynynaatteeddbbyy Important “Old Money” SSPoPormromodedeuFuFcicritrstmmsfsfosoDrDreTeTvhvheeeelmolmopp Consumers EEdduuHcHcoaoawtwteetCtoCoooSnSntstrsreueutmtcmcheher$rs$soonn TThheeNNoouuvveeaauuRRicichheess TThhee““GGeettSSeett”” CCSSlooloomssmeeererFtFotiorirmtthmhsissisLLMoMoacacraraktkteeeett Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall SSttaattuuss 1133-1-133 SSyymmbboollss TThhee BBiillllbbooaarrdd WWiiffee Parody CCoommmmoonn Modern Display CChhaarraaccteterrisistitcicss Potlatch ooff CCoonnssppicicuuoouuss CCoonnssuummpptitoionn SSttaattuuss LLeeiissuurree SSyymmbboollss CCllaassss Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall
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