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消费者行为(英文版)12

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CONSUMER BEH****IOR 1122-1-1 Fourth Edition Michael R. Solomon CChhaapptteerr 1122 Organizational and Household Decision Making Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall OOrrggaanniizzaattiioonnaall DDeecciissiioonn-- 1122-2-2 MMaakkiinngg • Organizational Buyers are people who purchase goods and services on behalf of companies for use in the process of ****nufacturing, distribution, or resale. • These individuals buy from Business-to- Business Marketers, who specialize in meeting the needs of organizations such as corporations, government agencies, hospitals and retailers. • Approxi****tely, $2 trillion dollars worth of products and services change hands among organizations. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall OOrrggaanniizzaattiioonnaall 1122-3-3 PPuurrcchhaassee SSiittuuEEaxaxptpteieioccottananttiioonnss ooff tthhee SSuupppplliieerr OOrrggaanniizzaattiioonnaall IInnfflluueenncceess oonn tthhee CClliim****attee ooff tthhee OOrrggaanniizzaattiioonnaall BBuuyyeerr’’ss FFiirrmm PPuurrcchhaassee SSiittuuaattiioonn BBuuyyeerr’’ss AAsssseessssmmeenntt ooff Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall HHiiss// HHeerr OOwwnn PPeerrffoorrm****annccee OOrrggaanniizzaattiioonnaall DDeecciissiioonn-- 1122-4-4 MMaakkiinngg VVss.. CCoonnssuummeerr DDeecciissiioonn-- MMaPaPukukrrcicinhnhaagsgseeDDeecciissiioonnssFFrreeqquueennttllyyIInnvvoollvveeMMaannyyPPeeooppllee PPrroodduuccttssAArreeOOfftteennBBoouugghhttAAccccoorrddiinnggttooSSppeecciiffiiccaattiioonnss IImmppuullsseeBBuuyyiinnggiissRRaarree DDeecciissiioonnssAArreeOOfftteennHHiigghh--RRiisskk DDoollllaarrVVoolluummeeooffPPuurrcchhaasseeiissOOfftteennSSuubbssttaannttiiaall MMoorreeEEmmpphhaassiissoonnPPeerrssoonnaallSSeelllliinngg DDeecciissiioonnssAArreeGGuuiiddeeddbbyyLLoonngg--TTeerrmmRReellaattiioonnsshhiippss Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall IInnfflluueenncceess oonn tthhee 1122-5-5 OOrrggaanniizzaattiioonnaall BBuuyyeerr BBeehhaavviioorr PPrroocceessss TTyyppeeooffPPuurrcchhaassee TThheeBBuuyyccllaassssFFrraammeewwoorrkk LLeevveel l oof f IInnffoorrm****attiioonnTThhaatt MMuussttbbeeGGaatthheerreedd SSeerriioouussnneessssooff BBuuyyeerr’’ss CCoonnssiiddeerraattiioonnooff FFaammiilliiaarriittyyWWiitthh AAllllPPoossssiibbllee TThheePPuurrcchhaassee AAlltteerrnnaattiivveess Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall TTyyppeess ooff OOrrggaanniizzaattiioonnaall 1122-6-6 BBuuyyiinngg SSiittuuaattiioonnss Extent of Risk and Effort Involved NNeeww TTaasskk MMooddiiffiieedd RReebbuuyy SSttrraaiigghhtt RReebbuuyy Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall OOrrggaanniizzaattiioonnaall DDeecciissiioonn 1122-7-7 RRoolleess Initiator Gatekeeper DDeecciissiioonn RRoolleess User Influencer Buyer Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall TTrreennddss iinn OOrrggaanniizzaattiioonnaall 1122-8-8 BBuuyyiinngg BBeehhaavviioorr BBuuiillddiinngg SSttrroonngg,, LLaassttiinngg BBoonnddss WWiitthh SSuupppplliieerrss CCoonnssoolliiddaattiinnggVVeennddoorrss EEmmpphhaassiiss oonn tthhee UUsseerr,, NNoott oonn tthhee BBuuyyeerr SShhiifftt FFrroomm TTeecchhnnoollooggyy ttoo MMaarrkkeettiinngg OOrriieennttaattiioonn Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall DDeeffiinniinngg tthhee MMooddeerrnn 1122-9-9 FFaammiillyy • The Extended Family was once the most common family unit and consisted of three generations living together. • The Nuclear Family - a mother, father, and one or more children - became the modern family. However, this is no longer a realistic view of the family. • Today, a Family Household is defined as containing at least two people who are related by blood or ****rriage. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall AAggee aanndd SSiizzee ooff tthhee 1122-1-100 FFaammiillyy • How do the following overall demographics of the modern family affect ****rketers? – The under-25 ****rried couple age group declined by one-third since 1980. – The 65+ group increased by 15% since 1980. – The 35 - 44 year age group grew 40% since 1980, and will be 50% of the total by the year 2000. – The average ****rrying age for women is 24 and 26 for men. – The average family size is 2.6 people, and birth rates are expected to continue to decline. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall FFaammiillyy 1122-1-111 HH•ooAuunssoetehhherooflalddctssor affecting ****rketers is that family households headed by a single person have grown by over 25% in the last decade. – Over a million couples divorce each year. – The number of un****rried ****s is steadily rising. – Single men and women are different ****rkets. – Middle-aged ****s have been termed “The Sandwich Generation” because they must attend to those above them and below them in age. – Children that have left home and return to the nest are called Boomerang Kids. – Nontraditional family structures continue to rapidly increase. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall EEffffeeccttss ooff FFaammiillyy 1122-1-122 SSttrruuccttuurree oonn CCToohennFsasmuuilmymLpipfettCiioyoclnne (FLC) Combines Trends in Income and Family Composition With the Changes in De****nds Placed Upon This Income. Four Variables are Necessary to Describe These Changes: AAggee MMaarriittaallSSttaattuuss PPrreesseenncceeoorrAAbbsseenncceeooffCChhiillddrreenn iinntthheeHHoommee CChhiillddrreenn’’ssAAggeess((iiffaannyy)) Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall FFaammiillyy LLiiffee CCyyccllee:: AAnn 1122-1-133 UUppddaatteedd VViieeww Age of Head of Household 1 Adult in Household Under 35 35 - **** Over **** Bachelor I Bachelor II Bachelor III 2 Adults in Household Young Childless Older Couple Couple Couple 2 Adults + Children in Full Nest I Delayed Full Nest Household Full Nest II Full Nest III Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall FFaammiillyy DDeecciissiioonn 1122-1-144 MMaakkiinnggTTyyppeessooffPPuurrcchhaasseeDDeecciissiioonnss MMaaddeebbyyFFaammiilliieess CCoonnsseennssuuaall AAccccoommmmooddaattiivvee GGrroouuppAAggrreeeessoonntthheeDDeessirireedd GGrroouuppMMeemmbbeerrssHHaavveeDDififffeerreenntt PPuurrcchhaassee,,DDififffeerrininggOOnnlylyinin PPrreeffeerreenncceessaannddCCaann’t’tAAggrreeee oonnaaPPuurrcchhaasseeTThhaatt TTeerrmmssooffHHoowwItItWWililll WWililllSSaattisisffyyEEvveerryyoonnee.. BBeeAAcchhieievveedd.. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall FFaammiillyy DDeecciissiioonn 1122-1-155 CCoonnfflliicctt Conflict Occurs When There is Not Complete Correspondence in Family Members’ Needs and Preferences. Some Specific Factors Determining the Degree of Family Decision Conflict Include the Following: InIntteerrppeerrssoonnaallNNeeeeddss PPeerrssoonn’s’sLLeevveellooffInInvveessttmmeennttinintthheeGGrroouupp PPrroodduauacncntdtdInIUnUvvtotiolililvltivtyeyemmeenntt DDeeggrreeeeBtBtoeoeWUWUhshseiceidchdhotorhtrheWeWPiPlirllrloSoSdadautuitcsicstftyfiyninaaQQNNuueeeeesedstditoionnWWililll FFoorrPPrrooccuurreemmeenntt,,MMaainintetennaannccee,,PPaayymmeennt,t,eetctc.. RReessppoonnssibibiliiltityy OOnneeFFaOamOmthtihlieyleyrMrsMseienimnmMbMbeaearkr’kis’nisnIgnIgnDflfDuleueececninsicsicoeieonOnOssvveerrththee PPoowweerr Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall SSeexx RRoolleess aanndd DDeecciissiioonn-- 1122-1-166 MMaakkiinngg RReessppooAunntossciribabtiicilliittyy Syncratic Decisions Decisions Made by One Decisions Spouse or the Made Jointly Other FFaaccttoorrss IInnfflluueenncciinngg JJooiinntt oorr IInnddiivviidduuaall FFaammiillyyDDeecciissiioonnss SSeexx--RRoolleeSStteerreeoottyyppeess SSoocciiooeeccoonnoommiiccSSttaattuuss SSppoouussaal l RReessoouurrcceess EExxppeerriieennccee Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall CChhiillddrreenn aass DDeecciissiioonn 1122-1-177 MMaakkeerrss:: CC• ooCnhnislsduuremmn aeerrerssreicinnogTTnrirzaaeidinnaisinncggonsumers that deserve attention. – Kids ages 4 - 12 spend or influence their parents to spend about $140 billion a year. – Children are particularly influential in purchasing the following products: » Fruit snacks » Frozen novelties » Kids’ beauty aids and fragrances » Toys – Parental Yielding occurs when a parental decision ****ker is influenced by a child’s request and “surrenders”. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall CCoonnssuummeerr 1122-1-188 SS•ooCccoiinaaslluiizmzaaetrtiiSooonncialization is defined as the process by which young people acquire skills, knowledge, and attitudes relevant to their functioning in the ****rketplace. • Influence of Parents: » Authoritarian parents - restrictive with a negative view about advertising. » Neglecting parents - detached from kids and exercise little control over what their children do. » Indulgent parents - less restrictive and want children to learn about buying. – Influence of Television: » The “Electronic Babysitter” that teaches children about a culture’s values, myths, and idealized i****ges. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall CCooggnniittiivvee 1122-1-199 DDeeKvivdeseCllaoonppBemmSeeegmnnettnted By Age in Terms of Their Stage of Cognitive Development, or Ability to Comprehend Concepts of Increasing Complexity. Children Differ in Abilities to Store and Retrieve Infor****tion From Memory: LLiimmiitteedd EBEBmemelpolpolwolwoyAyASgSgSteStoeot6trr6rraa,aa,gtCgteCeeheghgiailiaeidlnednsrdsrd.e.eRnRneDeDttroroieiNeNv****oatltl CCuueedd BEBEememttwpwpleoWleeoWeynyhnhTe6Te6hnhnaeaePnsPnsrderdoeoS1mS1m2t2ptr,pra,tCatetCetehdehdgi.gli.idleidersrese-n-n-- SSttrraatteeggiicc SSppo1o1n2n2ttaaaannnnededSoSoOutOutrlsradlsadltyelteyeergEr,gE,imCeimCehspshp.il.lioldlodyryreeTnTnhheessee Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall MMaarrkkeett RReesseeaarrcchh aanndd 1122-2-200 CChhiillddrreenn • Despite children’s buying power, relatively little data on their preferences or influences on spending patterns is available. – Children are difficult subjects to research. – A particularly helpful types of research with children is Product Testing. – Many serious ethical issues are raised when advertisers try to appeal directly to children. – Kids’ cognitive defenses are not yet developed enough to filter out commercial appeals. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall
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