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消费者行为(英文版)09

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消费者分析  
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CONSUMER BEH****IOR 99-1-1 Fourth Edition Michael R. Solomon CChhaapptteerr 99 Individual Decision Making Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall SSttaaggeess iinn CCoonnssuummeerr 99-2-2 DDeecciissiioonn MMaakkiinngg PPrroobblleemmRReeccooggnniittiioonn IInnffoorrm****attiioonn SSeeaarrcchh EEvvaalluuaattiioonn ooff AAlltteerrnnaattiivveess PPrroodduucctt CChhooiiccee OOuuttccoommeess Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall PPeerrssppeeccttiivveess oonn DDeecciissiioonn 99-3-3 MMaakkiinngg • Consumer researchers have approached decision ****kers from a Rational Perspective. – People integrate infor****tion about a product, weigh pluses and minuses of each alternative, and arrive at a satisfactory decision. – This approach does not describe all forms of decision ****king. • Behavioral Influence Perspective explores decisions ****de under conditions of low involvement. • Consumers ****y be highly involved in a decision, but still the decisions can not wholly be explained rationally. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall AA CCoonnttiinnuuuumm ooff BBuuyyiinngg 99-4-4 DDeecciissiioonn EExxtteennssiivveePPrroobblleemm SSoollvviinngg BBeehhaavviioorr LLiimmiitteeddPPrroobblleemm HHaabbiittuuaallDDeecciissiioonn SSoollvviinngg MMaakkiinngg LLooww--CCoossttPPrroodduuccttss MMoorPrePerrEoEodxdxpupuececntntssssivivee FFrreeqquueennttPPuurrcchhaassiningg InInffrreeqquueennttPPuurrcchhaassiningg LLoIonIwnwvvoCoClovlovenenmsmsueuemnmnteterr HHiIginIgnhvhvoCoClvlovoenenmsmsueuemnmnteterr FFaammiliilaaiaanrnrdPdPBrBrorordadaununcdcdtstsCClalassss UCUCnlnalfafasasmsmsialiailnainadrdrPBPBrrroraoadndnududcscstt LLitittotloelrerTTTTPhiPhmiuomuorueruecgcGhgGhhahiatvist,vs,eeSeeSnneetataororcchh,, SSeeEaEaxrxrctctehtehton,on,saPsaPinviunvuderdercTcTThThihmiah****osoesueeuegGgGhihvitvt,e,enn Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall PPrroobblleemm 99-5-5 RRPereocbcleoomggRnencioittgiinooitinonn Occurs Whenever the Consumer Sees a Significant Difference Between His or Her Current State and Some Desired or Ideal State. Consumer’s Ideal State Need Recognition Opportunity Recognition Occurs By: Occurs By: Running Out of a Product Exposure to Different or Inadequate Product Better-Quality Products Creating New Needs Consumer’s Actual State Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall IInnffoorrm****attiioonn 99-6-6 SSeIenafaorrrmccahthion Search is the Process in Which the Consumer Surveys His or Her Environment for Appropriate Data to Make a Reasonable Decision. Types of Search Infor****tion Sources > Prepurchase - an Explicit >Internal Search - Memory Search for Infor****tion. Scan to Assemble Infor****tion. >Ongoing Search - Browsing >External Search - Infor****tion Used by Veteran Shoppers for Obtained from Advertisements, Up-to-Date Infor****tion. Friends, or People Watching. Infor****tion Searches > Deliberate Search is the Result of Directed Learning. >Accidental Search is the Result of Incidental Learning. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall TThhee EEccoonnoommiiccss ooff 99-7-7 IInnffoorrm****attiioonn • Economics-of-Infor****tion approach assumes that consumers will gather as much data as is needed to ****ke an informed decision. – Implies consumers will continue the search until the rewards of doing so (utility) exceed the costs. • Consumers, however, do not always search rationally. – Amount of external search for most products is surprisingly s****ll, even when it would benefit the consumer. Exception: Symbolic products such as clothing. – Consumers often Brand Switch as they seek variety in their product experiences. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall BBiiaasseess iinn tthhee DDeecciissiioonn-- 99-8-8 MMaakkiinngg PPrroocceessss MMeennttaallAAccccoouunnttiinngg DDeeccisisioionnssaarreeInInfflulueenncceeddbbyytthheeWWaayy tthheePPrroobblelemmisisPPoosseedd((FFrraamminingg)) SSuunnkk--CCoossttFFaallllaaccyy HHaavvininggPPaaididffoorrSSoommeetthhininggMMaakkeess UUssRReeluluccttaannttttooWWaasstteeItIt.. LLoossssAAvveerrssiioonn PPeeoopplelePPlalacceeMMoorreeEEmmpphhaassisisoonn LLoossssTThhaannTThheeyyDDooGGaainin.. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall HHooww MMuucchh SSeeaarrcchh 99-9-9 OOccccuurrss?? PPuurrcchhaasseeiiss IImmppoorrttaanntt Value Style SSeeaarrcchhAAccttiivviittyy NNeeeedd ttoo LLeeaarrnn and I****ge iiss GGrreeaatteerr WWhheenn:: MMoorreeAAbboouutt PPuurrcchhaassee CCoonnssuummeerrssAArree YYoouunnggeerr, , IInnffoorrm****attiioonn iiss EEaassiillyyOObbttaaiinneedd BBeetttteerr--EEdduuccaatteedd WWoommeenn SShhoopp TThhaannMMeenn Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall TThhee CCoonnssuummeerr’’ss PPrriioorr 99-1-100 EExSxepparecehrrTtteiinssdeseto Be Greatest Among Those Consumers Who Are Moderately Knowledgeable About the Product. Amount of Search Product knowledge Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall TTyyppeess ooff PPeerrcceeiivveedd 99-1-111 RRiisskk TTyyppeessooffRRiisskkAAffffeeccttiinnggSSeeaarrcchh MMoonneettaarryy PPssyycchhoollooggiiccaall FFuunnccttiioonnaall SSoocciiaall PPhhyyssiiccaall Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall EEvvaalluuaattiioonn ooff 99-1-122 AAlltteerrnnaattiivveess AAllll AAlltteerrnnaattiivveess EEvvookkeeddSSeett IInneerrttSSeett IInneeppttSSeett AAccttiviveelyly NNoottEEnntteerriningg AAwwaarreeooff,,BBuutt CCoonnssidideerreedd CCoonnssidideerraattioionn WWoouuldldNNoottBBuuyy RReettrriieevvaall PPrroommiinneenntt SSeett PPrroodduuccttssiinn EEnnvviirroonnmmeenntt Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall LLeevveellss ooff PPrroodduucctt 99-1-133 CCaatteeSgugpoeororrridiziznaaatettiLioeovennl Includes Abstract Concepts. DDeesssseerrtt FFaatttteenniinngg Basic Levels Have Much NNoonnffaatttteenniinngg DDeesssseerrtt More in Common, But a DDeesssseerrtt Number of Alternatives Exist. IcIceeCCrreeaamm CCaakkee FFrruuitit DDieiettIcIcee PPieie Subordinate Levels YYoogguurrtt Includes Individual Brands. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall SSttrraatteeggiicc IImmpplliiccaattiioonnss 99-1-144 ooff PPrroodduucctt CCaatteeggoorrCiCizooznnaaccetetpipPiPtotoiriorooonnnnddoouuffcctththtePePPoPorrssooiditdtiuiuooccntnt iRiRnneeggllaattiivvee ttoo OOtthheerr PPrroodduuccttss iinn tthhee CCoonnssuummeerr’’ss MMiinndd IIddeennttiiffyyiinngg CCoommppeettiittoorrss AArree DDiiffffeerreenntt PPrroodduuccttss SSuubbssttiittuutteess?? EExxeemmppllaarr PPrroodduuccttss MMoosstt KKnnoowwnn,, AAcccceepptteedd PPrroodduucctt oorr BBrraanndd LLooccaattiinngg PPrroodduuccttss CCoonnssuummeerrss’’ EExxppeeccttaattiioonnss RReeggaarrddiinngg tthhee PPllaacceess ttoo LLooccaattee aa DDeessiirreedd PPrroodduucctt.. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall PPrroodduucctt CChhooiiccee:: 99-1-155 SSeelleeccttiinngg AAmmoonngg •AAElltvteearlrunnaaatitvtiievveCesrsiteria are the dimensions used to judge the merits of competing options. • The attributes actually used to differentiate among choices are Determinant Attributes. • Marketers can educate consumers about a new decision criterion if they communicate to buyers: – There are significant differences among brands on the attribute. – Supply the consumer with a decision-****king rule. – Should convey a rule that can be easily integrated with how the person has ****de this decision in the past. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall HHeeuurriissttiicc 99-1-166 ssHeuristics are Mental Rules-of-Thumb That Lead to a Speedy Decision. CCoouunnttrryy PPrroodduucctt ooffOOrriiggiinn SSiiggnnaall BBrraanndd Common MMaarrkkeett LLooyyaallttyy Heuristics BBeelliieeffss PPrriiccee//QQuuaalliittyy RReettaaiill RReellaattiioonnsshhiipp OOuuttlleettss BBrraanndd NNaammeess Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall CChhoooossiinngg FFaammiilliiaarr BBrraanndd 99-1-177 NNaammeess:: LLoo•yyMaaallnttyyypooerroHpHleaabbbuiityt??the same brand every time due to Inertia, where a brand is bought out of habit merely because less effort is required. • Brand Loyalty is a form of repeat purchasing behavior reflecting a conscious decision to continue buying the same brand. – A brand-loyal customer is actively involved with the product for either emotional or objective reasons. • Marketers struggle with Brand Parity, which refers to consumers’ beliefs that there are no significant differences among brands. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall DDeecciissiioonn 99-1-188 RRuCuollneesussmers Consider Sets of Product Attributes by Using Different Decision Rules, Depending on the Complexity of the Decision and the Importance of the Decision to Them. onnccoommppeennssaattoorryy CCoommppeennssaattoorryy DDeecciissiioonnRRuulleess DDeecciissiioonnRRuulleess LLeexxiiccooggrraapphhiicc SSiimmpplleeAAddddiittiivvee EElliimmiinnaattiioonn--BByy--AAssppeeccttss WWeeiigghhtteeddAAddddiittiivvee CCoonnjjuunnccttiivvee Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall
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