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消费者行为(英文版)06

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消费者分析  
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CONSUMER BEH****IOR 66-1-1 Fourth Edition Michael R. Solomon CChhaapptteerr 66 Personality and Lifestyles Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall PPeerrssoonnaallii 66-2-2 tt•yyPersonality refers to a person’s unique psychological ****keup and how it consistently influences the way a person responds to his or her environment. • Most now agree that both personality and situational factors play a role in determining people’s behavior. • Personality is usually involved, along with: – A person’s choices of leisure activities, political outlook, aesthetic tastes, and – Other individual factors to segment customers in terms of Lifestyles. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall CCoonnssuummeerr BBeehhaavviioorr oonn 66-3-3 tthhee CCoouucchh:: FFrreeuuddiiaannId Oriented Towards TThheeoorryy Immediate Gratification EEggoo RReeffeerreeeeiinntthheeFFiigghhttBBeettwweeeennTTeemmppttaattiioonnaannddVViirrttuuee Superego Person’s Conscience Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall MMoottiivvaattiioonnaall 66-4-4 RReesseeaarrcchh • Applying Freudian ideas led to a perspective known as Motivational Research, which has a heavy emphasis on unconscious motives. – A basic assumption is that socially unacceptable needs are channeled into acceptable outlets. • This form of research relies on Depth Interviews, which uses relatively few consumers but probes deeply into each person’s purchase motivations. • Motivational Research has been attacked for two reasons: – Some feel it does not work, – Some feel that it works too well. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall NNeeoo--FFrreeuuddiiaann 66-5-5 TThheeoorriieess DTFADTFAoregoroegwsaows****ci****cniarnrriOsrdbiOsdtbtetOhtOeOdhOedttehthrtPhhrPseeeseeerr(orsrD(sospDspe((leC(A(eltCAeatogaaocgamcgshmgshr:per:epeMedlsMidlsa)iosa,)osni,vnovivtoiv)terni,)ern),gA.)gA. wwaayy KKaarreennHHoorrnneeyy Proposed That Many Actions Are Motivated by People’s Desire to AAllffrreeddAAddlleerr Overcome Feelings of Inferiority Relative to Others. Harry Stack Sullivan Focused on How Personality Evolves to Reduce Anxiety in Social Relationships. Carl Jung Analytical Psychology - Believed That People are Shaped by the Cumulative Experiences of Past Generations which create Archetypes. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall TTrraaiitt 66-6-6 TThheeooOrrnyye Approach to Personality is to Focus on the Quantitative Measurement of Traits, or Identifiable Characteristics that Define a Person Such As: EExxttrroovveerrssiioonn IInnnnoovvaattiivveenneessss MMaatteerriiaalliissmm SSeellff--CCoonnsscciioouussnneessss NNeeeedd ffoorr CCooggnniittiioonn Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall PPrroobblleemmss WWiitthh TTrraaiitt 66-7-7 TThheeoorryy iinn CCoonnssuummeerr RReesseeaarrcchh • Many of the scales are • Researchers ****ke not sufficiently valid. changes in the research instrument. • Personality tests are • Many trait scales are often developed only for intended to only measure specific populations. gross tendencies. • Tests ****y not be • Many of the scales are not administered under the well planned or thought best conditions. out. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall BBrraanndd 66-8-8 PPeerrssoonnaalliittyy BBrraannddEEqquuiittyy EExxtteennttTThhaattaaCCoonnssuummeerrHHoollddssSSttrroonngg,,FFaavvoorraabbllee,, aannddUUnniiqquueeAAssssoocciiaattiioonnssaabboouuttaaBBrraannddiinnMMeemmoorryy.. BBrraannddPPeerrssoonnaalliittyy AAssssiiggnniinnggPPeerrssoonnaalliittyyQQuuaalliittiieessttooIInnaanniim****atteePPrroodduuccttss TThhaattMMaakkeesstthheePPrroodduuccttSSttaannddOOuuttFFrroommtthheeCCoommppeettiittiioonn.. AAnniimmiissmm IInnaanniim****atteeOObbjjeeccttssaarreeGGiivveennQQuuaalliittiieess TThhaattMMaakkeeTThheemmSSoommeehhoowwAAlliivvee.. LLeevveell11::OObbjjeeccttiissBBeelliieevveeddttoo LLeevveell22::OObbjjeeccttssaarree PPoosssseesssseeddbbyytthheeSSoouullooffaaBBeeiinngg.. AAnntthhrrooppoorrmmpphhiizzeedd--GGiivveenn ii..ee..SSppookkeessppeerrssoonniinnAAddvveerrttiissiinngg HHuum****annCChhaarraacctteerriissttiiccss.. ii..ee..CChhaarrlliieetthheeTTuunnaa Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall LLiiffeessttyyllee:: WWhhoo WWee AArree,, WWhhaatt 66-9-9 WW•eeLDiDfeoostyle refers to a pattern of consumption reflecting a person’s choices of how he or she spends time and money. • It represents how a person allocates income: – To different products and services, and – To specific alternatives within these categories. • A Lifestyle Marketing Perspective recognizes that people sort themselves into groups on the basis of: – Things they like to do, – How they like to spend their leisure time, and – How they choose to spend their disposable income. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall LLiiffeessttyyll 66-1-100 ee•ssLifestyles as Group Identities – Lifestyles are statements about who one is in society and who one is not. – Each person adds their own individuality to a chosen lifestyle. • Products Are the Building Blocks of Lifestyles – Consumers often choose products, services, and activities over others because they are associated with a certain lifestyle. – Lifestyle Marketing Strategies focus on product usage in desirable social settings. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall LLiinnkkiinngg PPrroodduuccttss ttoo 66-1-111 LLiiPffeeeospsltet,yyPllreoedssucts, and Settings are Combined to Express a Certain Consumption Style. Person Lifestyle PPrroodduucctt SSeettttiinngg Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall LLiinnkkiinngg PPrroodduuccttss ttoo 66-1-122 LL•iifLfeeifsesstttyyyllleeeMssarketing Perspective – Marketers must look at Patterns of Behavior to understand consumers. – Marketers must identify the set of products and services that seems to be linked in consumers’ minds to a specific lifestyle. • Product Complementarity occurs when the symbolic meanings of different products are related to each other. – These sets of products, called Consumption Constellations, are used by consumers to define, communicate, and perform social roles. i.e. The “Yuppie” was defined by a Rolex watch, BMW cars and Gucci briefcases. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall CCoonndduuccttiinngg AA 66-1-133 PPssyycchhooggrraapphhiicc AAnnaallyyFsosrimisss of a Definition of Psychographics: Psychographic Study: Involves the “.. use of LLififeessttyylelePPrrooffiliele psychological, sociological, and anthropological factors... to PPrroodduucctt--SSppeeccifificicPPrrooffiliele determine how the ****rket is SSttuudTdTyryraTaiTtihtshsaaatatsUsUsDDseeeesssscPcPreriepirprststoooornrsnsaaliltityy segmented by the propensity of groups within the ****rket - and GGSeSeneneegegrmr****aelelLnLnitfitafeatestisoitotynynlele their reasons - to ****ke a PPrSrSoeoedgdgumumccetet-n-SnStptapaeteticoicoinfinficic particular decision about a product, person, ideology, or otherwise hold an attitude or use a medium. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall AAIIOOss aanndd 66-1-144 PPssyycchhooggrraapphhiiccss OOppininioionnss AAccttivivititieiess IInntteerreessttss DDeemmooggrraapphhiiccss--DDeessccrriibbeessWWhhooBBuuyyss PPssyycchhooggrraapphhiiccPPrrooffiilleess--TTeellllssWWhhyyCCoonnssuummeerrssBBuuyy 2200//8800RRuullee Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall UUsseess ooff 66-1-155 PPssyycchhooggrraapphhiicc SSeeggmmeennttaattiioonn DDeeffiinneetthhee TTaarrggeettMMaarrkkeett MMaarrkkeettSSoocciiaallaanndd PPoolliittiiccaallIIssssuueess DDeevveellooppOOvveerraallll CCrreeaatteeaaNNeeww SSttrraatteeggyy VViieewwoofftthheeMMaarrkkeett CCoommmmuunniiccaattee PPoossiittiioonntthhee PPrroodduuccttAAttttrriibbuutteess PPrroodduucctt Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall VVAALLSS 66-1-166 22 AAbbuunnddaannt t RReessoouurrcceess AAccttuuaallizizeerrss PPrriinncciipplleeOOrriieenntteedd SSttaattuussOOrriieenntteedd AAccttiioonnOOrriieenntteedd FFuullffiilllleeddss AAcchhiieevveerrss EExxppeerriieenncceerrss BBeelilieevveerrss SSttrriivveerrss MMaakkeerrss MMiinniim****allRReessoouurrcceess SSttrruugggglelerrss Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall RReeggiioonnaall 66-1-177 CCoonnssuummppttiioonn DDiiffffCeeornrseeunmnpcctieoenssPatterns Change in Areas Such As Food Preferences and Arts and Entertainment as One Moves From One Region of the Country to Another. Ecotopia The Foundry New England The Empty Quarter Breadbasket Dixie Mexamerica The Islands Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall GGlloobbaall MMaarrkkeettiinngg aanndd 66-1-188 CCuullttuurree Taste and Advertising Stylistic Preferences Cultural AArreeaass Sensitivities AAffffeecctteeddbbyy NNaattiioonnaalliittyy Modesty Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall MMaajjoorr CCoonnssuummeerr 66-1-199 TTrreennddss EEnnvviirroonnmmeennttaalliissm****anndd GGrreeeennMMaarrkkeettiinngg AARReettuurrnnttooVVaalluuee TTiimmeePPoovveerrttyy DDiissiilllluussiioonnmmeennttooff WWoorrkkiinnggWWoommeenn DDeeccrreeaasseeddEEmmpphhaassiiss oonnNNuuttrriittiioonnaannddEExxeerrcciissee Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall MMaajjoorr CCoonnssuummeerr TTrreennddss 66-2-200 ““CCooccoooonniinngg”” NNoonnccoonnssuummppttiioonn IInnddiivviidduuaalliissm****anndd MMaassssCCuussttoommiizzaattiioonn AALLaaiidd--BBaacckkLLiiffeessttyyllee LLiiffeeiinntthheeFFaassttLLaannee Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall
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