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销售:管理有利润的客户关系2

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Marketing Channels and Supply Chain Management Cha pte r 13 Objectives • Know why compa nie s us e dis tribution cha nne ls a nd unde rs ta nd the functions tha t the s e cha nne ls pe rform. • Le a rn how cha nne l me mbe rs inte ra ct a nd how the y orga nize to pe rform the work of the cha nne l. • Know the **** jor cha nne l a lte rna tive s tha t a re ope n to a compa ny. Objectives • Compre he nd how compa nie s s e le ct, motiva te , a nd e va lua te cha nne l me mbe rs . • Unde rs ta nd the na ture a nd importa nce of **** rke ting logis tics a nd inte gra te d s upply cha in **** na ge me nt. Case Study Caterpillar • Dominates world’s • Caterpillar stresses ****rkets for heavy dealer profitability, construction and extraordinary dealer mining equipment. support, personal • Independent relationships, dealer dealers are key to perfor****nce and s uc c es s full, honest, and frequent • Dealer network is c ommunic ations linked via Definition • Va lue De live ry Ne twork  The ne twork **** de up of the compa ny, s upplie rs , dis tributors , a nd ulti**** te ly cus tome rs who “pa rtne r” with e a ch othe r to improve the pe rfor**** nce of the e ntire s ys te m. Nature & Importance of Marketing Channels • Cha nne l choice s a ffe ct othe r de cis ions in the **** rke ting mix  P ricing, Ma rke ting communica tions • A s trong dis tribution s ys te m ca n be a compe titive a dva nta ge • Cha nne l de cis ions involve long­te rm commitme nts to othe r firms Nature & Importance of Marketing Channels • How Cha nne l Me mbe rs Add Va lue  Inte rme dia rie s re quire fe we r conta cts to move the product to the fina l purcha s e r.  Inte rme dia rie s he lp **** tch product a s s ortme nt de **** nd with s upply.  Inte rme dia rie s he lp bridge **** jor time , pla ce , a nd pos s e s s ion ga ps tha t s e pa ra te products from thos e who would us e the m. Nature & Importance of Marketing Channels Key Functions Performed by Channel Members • Infor**** tion • Ne gotia tion • P romotion • P hys ica l Dis tribution • Conta ct • Fina ncing • Ma tching • Ris k ta king Nature & Importance of Marketing Channels • Numbe r of Cha nne l Le ve ls  The numbe r of inte rme dia ry le ve ls indica te s the le ngth of a **** rke ting cha nne l.  Dire c t C hanne ls  Indire c t C hanne ls  P roduce rs los e more control a nd fa ce gre a te r cha nne l comple xity a s a dditiona l cha nne l le ve ls a re a dde d. Nature & Importance of Marketing Channels Channel Members Are Connected Via A Variety of Flows • P hys ica l Flow • Infor**** tion Flow • P a yme nt Flow • P romotion Flow • Flow of Owne rs hip Channel Behavior and Organization • Cha nne l Conflict  Occurs whe n cha nne l me mbe rs dis a gre e on role s , a ctivitie s , or re wa rds .  Type s of Conflict:  Ho riz o ntal c o nflic t: o c c urs am o ng firm s at the s am e c hanne l le v e l  Ve rtic al c o nflic t: o c c urs am o ng firm s at diffe re nt c hanne l le v e ls Channel Behavior and Organization • Ve rtica l Ma rke ting S ys te ms  Corpora te VMS  Contra ctua l VMS  Manufac ture r- s p o ns o re d re taile r franc his e s ys te m  Manufac ture r- s p o ns o re d w ho le s ale r franc his e s ys te m  Se rv ic e - firm - s p o ns o re d re taile r franc his e s ys te m  Adminis te re d VMS Channel Behavior and Organization • Multicha nne l Dis tribution S ys te ms  Als o ca lle d hybrid **** rke ting cha nne ls  Occurs whe n a firm us e s two or more **** rke ting cha nne ls  Hybrid **** rke ting ha s **** ny a dva nta ge s • Cha nging Cha nne l Orga niza tion  Dis inte rme dia tion Channel Design Decisions • Ste p 1: Ana lyzing Cons ume r Ne e ds  Cos t a nd fe a s ibility of me e ting ne e ds mus t be cons ide re d • Ste p 2: S e tting Cha nne l Obje ctive s  S e t cha nne l obje ctive s in te rms of ta rge te d le ve l of cus tome r s e rvice  Ma ny fa ctors influe nce cha nne l obje ctive s Channel Design Decisions • Ste p 3: Ide ntifying Ma jor Alte rna tive s  Type s of inte rme dia rie s  C o m p any s ale s fo rc e , m anufac ture r’s ag e nc y, indus trial dis trib uto rs  Numbe r of **** rke ting inte rme dia rie s  Inte ns iv e , s e le c tiv e , and e x c lus iv e dis trib utio n  Re s pons ibilitie s of cha nne l me mbe rs Channel Design Decisions • Ste p 4: Eva lua ting Ma jor Alte rna tive s  Economic crite ria  Control is s ue s  Ada ptive crite ria Channel Design Decisions • De s igning Inte rna tiona l Dis tribution Cha nne ls  Globa l **** rke te rs us ua lly a da pt the ir cha nne l s tra te gie s to s tructure s tha t e xis t within fore ign countrie s  Ke y cha lle nge s :  May b e c o m p le x o r hard to p e ne trate  May b e s c atte re d, ine ffic ie nt, o r to tally lac king Channel Management Decisions • S e le cting Cha nne l Me mbe rs  Ide ntify cha ra cte ris tics tha t dis tinguis h the be s t cha nne l me mbe rs • Ma na ging a nd Motiva ting Cha nne l Me mbe rs  P a rtne r re la tions hip **** na ge me nt (P RM) is ke y • Eva lua ting Cha nne l Me mbe rs  P e rfor**** nce s hould be che cke d a ga ins t s ta nda rds  Cha nne l me mbe rs s hould be re wa rde d or re pla ce d a s dicta te d by pe rfor**** nce Public Policy and Distribution Decisions • Exclus ive dis tribution  Only ce rta in outle ts a re a llowe d to ca rry a firm’s products • Exclus ive de a ling  Exclus ive te rritoria l a gre e me nts  Tying a gre e me nts Marketing Logistics and Supply Chain Management • Ma rke ting Logis tics  Outbound dis tribution  Inbound dis tribution  Re ve rs e dis tribution  Involve s the e ntire s upply cha in **** na ge me nt s ys te m Marketing Logistics and Supply Chain Management • Why Gre a te r Empha s is is Be ing P la ce d on Logis tics :  Offe rs firms a compe titive a dva nta ge  Ca n yie ld cos t s a vings  Gre a te r product va rie ty re quire s improve d logis tics  Improve me nts in dis tribution e fficie ncy a re pos s ible due to infor**** tion te chnology Marketing Logistics and Supply Chain Management • Goa ls of the Logis tics S ys te m  No s ys te m ca n both **** ximize cus tome r s e rvice a nd minimize cos ts .  Firms mus t firs t we igh the be ne fits of highe r s e rvice a ga ins t the cos ts .  S ta te goa ls in te rms of a ta rge te d le ve l of cus tome r s e rvice a t the le a s t cos t. Marketing Logistics and Supply Chain Management • Ma jor Logis tics Functions  Wa re hous ing  Inve ntory Ma na ge me nt  Tra ns porta tion  Logis tics Infor**** tion Ma na ge me nt Marketing Logistics and Supply Chain Management Trans portation Carrier Options • Truck • P ipe line • Ra il • Air • Wa te r • Inte rne t Inte rm o dal trans p o rtatio n is b e c o m ing m o re c o m m o n Marketing Logistics and Supply Chain Management • Inte gra te d Logis tics Ma na ge me nt  Cros s ­functiona l te a mwork ins ide the compa ny is critica l  Logis tics pa rtne rs hips a re a ls o built through s ha re d proje cts  Outs ourcing of logis tics firms to third­ pa rty firms is be coming more common
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