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销售:管理有利润的客户关系1

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Pricing Strategies Cha pte r 12 Objectives • Le a rn the **** jor s tra te gie s for pricing imita tive a nd ne w products . • Unde rs ta nd how compa nie s find a s e t of price s tha t **** ximize s the profits from the tota l product mix. Objectives • Le a rn how compa nie s a djus t the ir price s to ta ke into a ccount diffe re nt type s of cus tome rs a nd s itua tions . • Know the ke y is s ue s re la te d to initia ting a nd re s ponding to price changes. Case Study mLife: AT&T Wireless • Price is #1 factor • mLife ad campaign influencing choice attempted to build of cellular the AT&T wireless c ompanies brand so consumers • Prices in wireless would consider indus try dropped value rather than 25% in three years just price • Few companies • Campaign met with strong initial were profitable Definitions • Ma rke t­S kimming P ricing  S e tting a high price for a ne w product to s kim **** ximum re ve nue s la ye r by la ye r from s e gme nts willing to pa y the high price . • Ma rke t­P e ne tra tion P ricing  S e tting a low price for a ne w product in orde r to a ttra ct a la rge numbe r of buye rs a nd a la rge **** rke t s ha re . Product Mix Pricing Strategies • P roduct Line P ricing  S e tting price s te ps be twe e n product line ite ms .  Pric e p o ints • Optiona l­P roduct P ricing  P ricing optiona l or a cce s s ory products s old with the **** in product Product Mix Pricing Strategies • Ca ptive ­P roduct P ricing  P ricing products tha t mus t be us e d with the **** in product  Hig h m arg ins are o fte n s e t fo r s up p lie s  S e rvice s : two­pa rt pricing s tra te gy  Fix e d fe e p lus a v ariab le us ag e rate Product Mix Pricing Strategies • By­P roduct P ricing  P ricing low­va lue by­products to ge t rid of the m • P roduct Bundle P ricing  P ricing bundle s of products s old toge the r Price Adjustment Strategies Strategies • Type s of dis counts • Dis c o unt / allo w anc e  Ca s h dis count • Se g m e nte d  Qua ntity dis count • Ps yc ho lo g ic al  Functiona l (tra de ) dis count • Pro m o tio nal  S e a s ona l dis count • Ge o g rap hic al • Inte rnatio nal • Allowa nce s  Tra de ­in a llowa nce s  P romotiona l a llowa nce s Price Adjustment Strategies Strategies • Type s of s e gme nte d pricing s tra te gie s : • Dis c o unt / allo w anc e • Se g m e nte d  Cus tome r­s e gme nt • Ps yc ho lo g ic al  P roduct­form pricing • Pro m o tio nal  Loca tion pricing • Ge o g rap hic al  Time pricing • Inte rnatio nal • Als o ca lle d re ve nue or yie ld **** na ge me nt • Ce rta in conditions mus t e xis t for s e gme nte d pricing to be e ffe ctive Price Adjustment Strategies Conditions Necessary for Segmented Pricing Effectiveness • Ma rke t is s e gme nta ble • P ricing mus t be le ga l • Lowe r price d • Cos ts of s e gme nta tion ca n s e gme nts a re not a ble not e xce e d re ve nue s e a rne d to re s e ll • S e gme nte d pricing mus t • Compe titors ca n not unde rs e ll s e gme nts re fle ct re a l diffe re nce s in cha rging highe r price s cus tome rs ’ pe rce ive d va lue Price Adjustment Strategies Strategies • The price is us e d to s a y s ome thing a bout the • Dis c o unt / allo w anc e product. • Se g m e nte d • Ps yc ho lo g ic al  P rice ­qua lity re la tions hip • Pro m o tio nal  Re fe re nce price s • Ge o g rap hic al  Diffe re nce s a s s **** ll a s • Inte rnatio nal five ce nts ca n be importa nt  Nume ric digits **** y ha ve s ymbolic a nd vis ua l qua litie s tha t ps ychologica lly influe nce the buye r Price Adjustment Strategies Strategies • Te mpora rily pricing products be low the lis t • Dis c o unt / allo w anc e price or e ve n be low cos t • Se g m e nte d • Ps yc ho lo g ic al • Los s le a de rs • Pro m o tio nal • Ge o g rap hic al  S pe cia l­e ve nt pricing • Inte rnatio nal  Ca s h re ba te s  Low­inte re s t fina ncing, longe r wa rra ntie s , fre e **** inte na nce • P romotiona l pricing ca n ha ve a dve rs e e ffe cts Price Adjustment Strategies Promotional Pricing Problems • Ea s ily copie d by • Not a le giti**** te s ubs titute compe titors for e ffe ctive s tra te gic pla nning • Cre a te s de a l­prone cons ume rs • Fre que nt us e le a ds to indus try price wa rs which • Ma y e rode bra nd’s be ne fit fe w firms va lue Price Adjustment Strategies Strategies • Type s of ge ogra phic pricing s tra te gie s : • Dis c o unt / allo w anc e • Se g m e nte d  FOB­origin pricing • Ps yc ho lo g ic al  Uniform­de live re d • Pro m o tio nal • Ge o g rap hic al pricing • Inte rnatio nal  Zone pricing  Ba s ing­point pricing  Fre ight­a bs orption pricing Price Adjustment Strategies Strategies • P rice s cha rge d in a s pe cific country de pe nd • Dis c o unt / allo w anc e on **** ny fa ctors • Se g m e nte d • Ps yc ho lo g ic al  Economic conditions • Pro m o tio nal  Compe titive s itua tion • Ge o g rap hic al  La ws / re gula tions • Inte rnatio nal  Dis tribution s ys te m  Cons ume r pe rce ptions  Cos t cons ide ra tions Price Changes • Initia ting P rice Cuts is De s ira ble Whe n a Firm:  Ha s e xce s s ca pa city  Fa ce s fa lling **** rke t s ha re due to price compe tition  De s ire s to be a **** rke t s ha re le a de r Price Changes • P rice Incre a s e s a re De s ira ble :  If a firm ca n incre a s e profit, fa ce s cos t infla tion, or fa ce s gre a te r de **** nd tha n ca n be s upplie d. • Me thods of Incre a s ing P rice • Alte rna tive s to Incre a s ing P rice  Re ducing product s ize , us ing le s s e xpe ns ive **** te ria ls , unbundling the product. Price Changes • Buye r re a ctions to price cha nge s mus t be cons ide re d. • Compe titors a re more like ly to re a ct to price cha nge s unde r ce rta in conditions .  Numbe r of firms is s **** ll  P roduct is uniform  Buye rs a re we ll informe d Price Changes • Re s pond To P rice Cha nge s Only If:  Ma rke t s ha re / profits will be ne ga tive ly a ffe cte d if nothing is cha nge d.  Effe ctive a ction ca n be ta ke n:  Re duc ing p ric e  Rais ing p e rc e iv e d q uality  Im p ro v ing q uality and inc re as ing p ric e  Launc hing lo w - p ric e “fig hting b rand” Public Policy and Pricing • P ricing w ithin Cha nne l Le ve ls  P rice ­fixing  C o m p e tito rs c an no t w o rk w ith e ac h o the r to s e t p ric e s  P re da tory pricing  Firm s m ay no t s e ll b e lo w c o s t w ith the inte ntio n o f p unis hing a c o m p e tito r o r g aining hig he r lo ng - run p ro fits o r running a c o m p e tito r o ut o f b us ine s s . Public Policy and Pricing • P ricing ac ro s s Cha nne l Le ve ls  P rice dis crimina tion  Re ta il price **** inte na nce  De ce ptive pricing  Bo g us re fe re nc e / c o m p aris o n p ric ing  Sc anne r fraud  Pric e c o nfus io n
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